Chapters 7 - 9 Flashcards Preview

Mastering VMware > Chapters 7 - 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 7 - 9 Deck (17):
1

Specifically with regard to Windows clustering in a virtual environment, what are three different types of cluster configurations that you can have?

The first is a cluster in a box, which is mainly used for testing or in a development environment where both nodes of a Windows cluster run on the same ESXi host. The second is the cluster across boxes, which is the
most common form of clustering in a virtual environment. In this configuration, you can use Windows clustering on VMs that are running on different physical hosts. The third is the physical-to-virtual configuration, where you have the best of both the physical and virtual
worlds by having a Windows clustering node on both a physical server and a virtual server.

2

What is the key difference between NLB clusters and Windows failover clusters?

Network load balancing (NLB) clusters are used primarily for scaling performance. Windows failover clusters are primarily used for high availability and redundancy.

3

What are the two types of high-availability options that VMware provides in vSphere, and how are they different?

VMware provides two forms of high availability in vSphere. vSphere HA provides a form of high availability by giving you the ability to restart any VMs that were running on a host that crashes. vSphere SMP Fault Tolerance (FT) uses Checkpoint technology to send the result ofprocessed inputs to a secondary VM on another host in the cluster.
Failover from the primary VM to the secondary VM is without any downtime. vSphere HA restarts the VM in the event of failure; vSphere SMP-FT does not need to restart the VM because the secondary VM is kept in sync with the primary and can take over immediately in the event of a failure.

4

Name one advantage of a hypervisor-based high-availability solution over an OS-level solution.

Because a hypervisor-based solution would operate beneath the guest OS level, it would operate independently of the guest OS and could therefore potentially support any number of different guest OSs. Depending on the implementation, hypervisor-based solutions might be simpler than OS-level solutions. For example, vSphere HA is generally less complex and easier to set up or configure than Windows failover clustering.

5

What are three methods to replicate your data to a secondary location, and what is the golden rule for any continuity plan?

First, you have the backup and restore method from tape. It is a best practice to keep backup tapes off site and, when they are needed after a disaster, have them shipped to the secondary site. Second, you can replicate your data by using replication at the SAN level. This gives you the ability to replicate data over both short and long distances. Third, you canuse a disk-to-disk backup appliance, such as vSphere Replication, that also offers offsite replication to another location. This method offers shorter backup windows as well as the benefits of offsite backups. Finally, the golden rule for any successful continuity design is to test, test, and test
again.

6

First, you have the backup and restore method from tape. It is a best practice to keep backup tapes off site and, when they are needed after a disaster, have them shipped to the secondary site. Second, you can
replicate your data by using replication at the SAN level. This gives you the ability to replicate data over both short and long distances. Third, you can use a disk-to-disk backup appliance, such as vSphere Replication, that also offers offsite replication to another location. This method offers shorter backup windows as well as the benefits of offsite backups. Finally, the golden rule for any successful continuity design is to test, test, and test again.

Yes, the administrator can use the traditional vSphere Client and connect directly to the ESXi hosts on which the accounts need to be created.

7

Describe the differences between a role, a privilege, and a permission in the ESXi/vCenter Server security model.

A role is a combination of privileges; a role is assigned to a user or group. Privileges are specific actions (like power on a VM, power off a VM, configure a VM’s CD/DVD drive, and take a snapshot) that a role is
allowed to perform. You combine privileges into a role. Permissions are created when you assign a role (with its associated privileges) to an inventory object within ESXi or vCenter Server.

8

Describe how you can use the ESXi firewall to limit traffic to a specific source IP address.

In the Firewall Properties dialog box, click the Firewall button and specify a source IP address or source IP subnet.

9

You’ve just installed a new ESXi host into your vSphere
environment and you are trying to configure the host to enable integration with your Active Directory environment. For some reason, though, it doesn’t seem to work. What could be the problem?

A couple different issues could be at work here. First, the ESXi host needs to be able to resolve the domain name of the Active Directory domain via DNS. The ESXi host also needs to be able to locate the Active Directory domain controllers via DNS. This usually involves configuring the ESXi host to use the same DNS servers as the domain controllers.
Second, there could be network connectivity issues; verify that the ESXi host has connectivity to the Active Directory domain controllers. If there are any firewalls between the ESXi host and the domain controllers, verify that the correct ports are open between the ESXi host and the domain controllers.

10

Create two VMs, one intended to run Windows Server 2012 and a second intended to run SLES 11 (64-bit). Make a list of the differences in the configuration that are suggested by the Create New Virtual Machine Wizard.

vCenter Server suggests 1 GB of RAM, an LSI Logic parallel SCSI controller, and a 16 GB virtual disk for 64-bit SLES 11; for Windows Server 2012, the recommendations are 4 GB of RAM, an LSI Logic SAS controller, and a 40 GB virtual disk.

11

What are the three ways in which a guest OS can access data on a CD/DVD, and what are the advantages of each approach?

The three ways to access a CD/DVD are as follows:
Client device: This has the advantage of being very easy to use; VMware administrators can put a CD/DVD into their local workstation and map
it into the VM.

Host device: The CD/DVD is physically placed into the optical drive of the ESXi host. This keeps the CD/DVD traffic off the network, which may be advantageous in some situations.

An ISO image on a shared library/datastore: This is the fastest method and has the advantage of being able to have multiple VMs access the
same ISO image at the same time. A bit more work may be required up front to create the ISO image

12

A fellow administrator contacts you and is having a problem installing VMware Tools. This administrator has selected the Install/Upgrade VMware Tools command, but nothing seems to be happening inside the VM. What could be the cause of the problem?

There could be any number of potential issues. First, a guest OS must be installed before VMware Tools can be installed. Second, if the VM is running Windows, AutoPlay may have been disabled. Finally, it’s
possible—although unlikely—that the source ISO images for VMware Tools installation have been damaged or deleted and need to be replaced on the
host.

13

A fellow administrator contacts you and is having a problem installing VMware Tools. This administrator has selected the Install/Upgrade VMware Tools command, but nothing seems to be happening inside the VM. What could be the cause of the problem?

There could be any number of potential issues. First, a guest OS must be installed before VMware Tools can be installed. Second, if the VM is running Windows, AutoPlay may have been disabled. Finally, it’s
possible—although unlikely—that the source ISO images for VMware Tools installation have been damaged or deleted and need to be replaced on the
host.

14

What are the three different ways an administrator can bring the contents of a CD/DVD into a VM?

The administrator can insert the CD/DVD into the system
running the vSphere Web Client and use the Client Device option in the Virtual Machine Properties dialog box to mount that CD/DVD into the VM. The administrator can also attach the physical CD/DVD drive in the host to the VM and mount the drive, or the administrator can convert the CD/DVD into an ISO image. Once converted, the ISO image can be uploaded into a datastore and mounted into a VM.

15

What is the difference between the Shut Down Guest command and the Power Off command?

The Shut Down Guest command uses VMware Tools to initiate an orderly shutdown of the guest OS. This ensures that the guest OS file system is consistent and that applications running in the guest OS are properly terminated. The Power Off command simply “yanks” the powerfrom the VM, much like pulling the power cord out of the back of a physical system.

16

Which method is preferred for modifying the configuration of a VM: editing the VMX file or using the vSphere Web Client?

Although it is possible to edit the VMX file to make changes, that method is error prone and is not recommended. Using the vSphere Web Client is the recommended method.

17

Name the types of hardware that cannot be added while a VM is running.

The following types of virtual hardware cannot be added while a VM is running: serial port, parallel port, floppy drive, CD/DVD drive, and
PCI device.