Phase 2 of the NFA scene size up process must answer what 3 questions
- What do i have
- Where is it going
- How do i control it
A comprehensive program directed at injury prevention which was developed by the NFPA, along with the Lowes Home Safety Council
NFPA 1561 was issued in what year
This principle was affirmed by the US Supreme Court:: No search warrant is needed to enter a fire scene and collect evidence when the fire dept is still on scene for a reasonable length of time as long as evidence is n plain view of the investigator.
Michigan vs Clifford 1984
When did the federal government establish the National Response Framework
The second self evaluation by the firefighter should come about how long before the annual review is due?
at about 6 weeks before
What type of search warrant is needed when reentry is to gain evidence for prosecution?
Criminal search warrant
The 4 main types of problems that the fire officer will be expected to encounter are…
- In station “house” issues
- Internal issues- dept issues such SOP,SOG, operational
- External issues- situations with the public
- High Profile events
The 5 step planning process to help local fire departments create and develop training programs was developed by…
USFA in the 1970’s and updated in 2003 by FEMA
2 forms of displine
Positive and negaive
One method of having the information readily available is to
Have brochures on hand about the topic
The Stafford Act of 1974 was amended when?
In 2007- it provides federal assistance to state and local governments, tribal nations, private non-profit organizations and individuals affected by a declared major disaster.
In 1940 Fire Chief Lloyd Layman authored what 5 step process for analyzing fire emergencies?
Fundamentals of Fire Tactics in 1940
Who developed the 3 Phase size up system?
The National Fire Academy (NFA)
The key to positive discipline is to …
to convince the parties that they want to do better and are capable and willing to make the effort.
In Layman’s 5 step size up process the 4th step of fire attack decision; the officer needs to answer what 4 questions?
- Are there enough units responding to handle the situation
- Are enough resources available and do conditions allow for an interior attack
- What is the most effective assignments of “on scene resources”
- What is the most effective assignments of “responding resources”
What is the NFPA 1033 Fire Investigators ultimate goal at a fire scene?
To determine the fire cause and origin
What are the 4 different types of internal conflicts
- A compliant about another co-worker
- Complaint on the work environment, including the station, units, or equipment
- A fire dept. policy
- The fire officer’s own behavior, decisions, actions.
5 typical steps in progressive negative discipline are
- Counsel the firefighter on the poor performance.
- Verbal Reprimand for poor performance
- Issue a written reprimand and place a copy in the subordinates file.
- Suspend from work
This was a program to meet the needs of an ALL -HAZARDs metropolitan fire dept.
(FGC) Fire Ground Command
The notes and handouts eventually evolved into the NFPA fire command textbooks.
What does a task force include
2 - 5 single resources that are assembled to accomplish a specific task
Paraphrasing the complaint back to the individual complaining accomplishes what 2 goals?
- The fire officer finishes with a good understanding of the issue from the complainants
- The complainant feels that the fire officer really listened
Do ALL disciplinary actions require Lourdermill Hearing?
NO- it varies state to state
Although fire ground accountability has been used in the UK for many years when did NFPA 1500 make accountability in the US?
Who developed the 7 critical factors when developing a strategy?
Chief Layman developed RECEO VS
The first 5 are in priority order and the last 2 can be used at any point
What are the 3 incident priorities
dark colored smoke is usually closer to the seat of the fire than light colored smoke?
What part of the command organization produces the most visible results?
The operations section
What Constitutional Amendment prohibits unlawful search and seizure?
The 4th Amendment
The overall incident goals are set at what command level
The command level where the physical work takes place is known as t
task level- such as operating hose lines, searching , etc.
What did the ASTM do in 1908 ?
They conducted full scale fire experiments.
When did the Great Chicago Fire occur ? and some stats…
October 8-9, 1871
Killed 300 people
90,000 residents homeless
burned over 17,400 structures
Once the brainstorming time is up have the group select how many alternative solutions form the list?
Have the group select 5 solutions from the list
During the 6 week before review self evaluation the officer and firefighter should develop TOGETHER what report?
The formal evaluation report which includes developing 3 new goals
A logical systematic examination of an item, component, assembly or structure and its place and function within a system.
The training for CERT includes how many class sessions
9 sessions of 2.5 hours once a week
When recording a verbal reprimand, how long do most dept keep the write up?
366 days …3 6 6 not 365
What are the 6 most basic motives for Arson?
- Fraud/ PROFIT
- Crime concealment
Standards for Fire service Instructor
Softening the targets is described as what
Applying 30 -90 sec of water to dramatically reduce the fire conditions and improve conditions
This section of the command structure is responsible for developing, and updating the IAP; and in many ways resembles the scheduling department of a company
The Planning Section
What typical construction type are low rise multi family that have been built since the 1980’s?
Type V wood frame contruction
After the cause and origin of a fire have both been determined any further search will require a search warrant or owner consent.
Part of the fire investigation is to determine the status of the fire suppression and alarm system at the time the fire started.
According to the US Fire Administration what percent of vehicle fire were caused by malfunction or mechanical failure?
What are considered tactical level management elements that are used to assemble companies and resources for a common purpose?
Divisions, Groups, and units
What are the 3 components to a competent ignition source?
- Generation- must have enough heat
- Transmission - enough heat must transmitted to the fuel
- Heating - enough time on the fuel to reach its ignition temp
High reflective safety vests must comply with what governing body?
What is the first step in the 4 step evaluation process?
The supervisor fills out a standardized evaluation form.. The supervisor’s manager is required to review and sign the evaluation before it is given to the subordinate.
This discipline is directed at motivating individuals and groups to meet or exceed expectations
The third step in the 4 step evaluation process is..
A face to face feedback interview between the subordinate and the supervisor.
The most basic component of the ICS is
the Incident action plan
Work skills have been shown to deteriorate after how many days?
The final resolution of a disciplinary action usually resides with who?
Civil service commission City Personnel Director
The Liaison area should be located where in relation to the command post?
Adjacent but not inside the command post
In 1908 the ASTM conducted research that developed what
The Standard time temperature curve
Where are cause and origin interviews normally conducted?
At the fire scene
The Logistics section of a command structure is normally divided into 2 branches which typically are?
Service Branch - communications and firefighter rehab
Support Branch - responsible for ensuring that enough supplies, firefighters , equipment are available.
This component of the ICS outlines the strategic objectives and states how the emergency operations will be conducted.
Incident action plan
Considered as a supervisory level established to either Operations or Logistics function to maintain a span of control
4 differences in modern homes vs legacy dwellings
- Open floor plan
- Larger homes
- Increased fuel loads
- New construction materials
Some form of PIA should be done at the company level on every call were the company performs emergency operations
When generating ideas in a group for alternative solutions a time limit should be set at …
for a group of 4-16 people at time limit of 15-25 min seems to work well.
The principles that guide the administration of progressive negative discipline under the labor management contract are known as
Due Process or Just Culture
The 5 steps to program development include…
- Identify the problem
- Select the method of most effective to address the issue
- Design the program
- Implement the program
- Evaluate the results. 2 types of feedback: immediate feedback- long term evaluation
One of the most effective strategies within the realm of positive discipline is
What does a strike team consist of ?
5 units of the same type with an assigned leader
An evaluation error in which the fire officer compares the performance of one subordinate against the performance of another instead of against the classified job standards
An evaluation error based on the fire officers personal ideals instead of the classified job standards is called
Frame of Reference
The final step in the evaluation process is to
set goals for the upcoming year.
All the required knowledge ,skills and abilities that a firefighter is expected to master within a specified time period to complete probation is known as
Classified Job Description
What is the smallest organizational element within the ICS
A glassy , root like residue resulting from lighting strikes are called?
Standards for Fire Inspector
In 1993, what agency made CERT nationally available?
FEMA- In 2004 CERT was moved to the Citizen Corps section. In 2013 Corps listed 2200 CERT programs
What does FIRESCOPE stand for?
Firefighting Resources of Southern California Organized for Potential Emergencies
What is the first step in fire cause determination?
Finding the point of origin
The second component for helping firefighters feel empowered can be described as
Success 102- this information identifies the tools that others have used to achieve success within the fire dept.
On the 40th Anniversary of the Chicago Fires what association decided that the date of this occurrence should be observed.
Fire Marshals Association of North America (now known as the International Fire Marshals Association)
The role of the initial IC during a Command Mode is to
Direct incoming units to take effective action
This section of the general staff is responsible for providing supplies, services, facilities and other materials during an incident
the Logistics Section
A complete investigative report has 3 objectives which are…
- The report must identify and clearly explain the issues.
- The report should then provide complete, impartial , and factual presentation of the background and relevant facts.
- The conclusion should be a recommended action plan which is based on and supported by the information
FIRESCOPE was adopted by what system in what year?
National Interagency Incident Management System (NIIMS) in 1982
Divisions, groups, and units are where the strategy specified in the incident action plan is converted into action
What is the most common cause of home structure fires?
Typically the structured probationary program assess the firefighters progress in 4 areas which are…
- firefighter skill competency
- Progress in learning job specific information; such as SOP,SOG
- Progress in learning the fire company district
- Progress in learning other job tasks such as house work
The fire officer has the responsibility to act as an agent of the formal organization
What is the 5 step approach to general decision making
- Define the problem
- Generate alternate solutions
- Select a solution
- Apply the solution
- Evaluate the results
What was the concept of the CERT program?
Provide basic training to residents, and employees in local communities that would allow them to function effectively during the first 72 hours after a disaster.
In October 2006, the Post Katrina Emergency Reform Act established what 3 things to improve national preparedness?
A RIT should ideally consist of how many members ?
4 as defined by NFPA 1407
When dealing with subordinates and enforcing policies and procedures, who is the first line level representative of the fire dept. administration
The fire officer
This section of the ICS is similar to the purchasing and support services of a large company
The Logistics section
What are the 2 major components to the IAP?
- The determination of the appropriate strategy to mitigate the incident
- The development of tactics to execute the strategy
A ventilation hole can be made above a ventilation limited fire to localize the fire and reduce temperatures
After the 2001 terrorist attacks the federal government expanded the 1992 Federal Response plan to engage state and local first responders into …
(HSPD5) Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5
Management of domestic incidents.
A type of discipline that aimed at discouraging bad behavior or performance is known as
First arriving unit with managing or supervising fire officers are required to focus on what level of command as they arrive
The strategic level
What are the 9 functions of command
- Determine the strategy
- Select the tactics
- Set the IAP
- Develop the ICS organization
- Managing resources
- Coordinating resource activities
- Provide for scene safety
- Release information about the incident
- Coordinating with outside agencies
Strategies are specific where tactics are general and non measureable
Strategies are GENERAL (goals)
Tactics are specific and measurable (strategies used to meet the goals)
What are the 3 most common causes of Accidental fires?
- smoking materials
- Heating- including improper maintenance; and fuels too close to heating device
The 4 objectives of a Public Safety Education Program
- Educate target audiences
- Instruct target audiences on to perform specific tasks
- Inform large groups of people about fire safety issues
- Distribute information on timely subjects to target audiences
An informal review that requires a higher level of documentation; the fire officer should have each firefighter write a self-evaluation in preparation for this session
Mid-Year Review- at this time personal goals can be adjusted because of changes in the work environment
A predisciplinary hearing must be conducted before a suspension, termination, or demotion; this hearing is also known as
This a moral, and physical state in which all ranks respond to the will of the leader
The first level of progressive discipline still considered informal by many organizations is…
An oral reprimand, Warning, or admonishment
Other than schools, what is the most decentralized and community based function of local government?
The Fire department
Lobby Control at a high rise incident reports to who?
The Logistics Section Chief; if that position is not established- the incident commander
In Layman 5 step Size up Process the “Situation assessment” involves 3 considerations…
- whether the units on scene and en route will be enough to handle the situation.
- The specific capabilities and limitation of the responding resources “the actual trucks, engines, etc” in relation to the problem
- The specific capabilities and limitations of the personnel, based on training and experience.
Chief Gasaway states that he feels that fire officers should know what is going on within the organization and address most issues before they become major problems; he calls this
What is the primary responsibility of a Fire Investigator?
developing a properly documentated case
Standard for Fire and Life safety Educator and PIO
The history of fire prevention week has its roots on what event
The Great Chicago Fire of 1871
According to NFPA 921 what are the 4 fire cause classifications?
- Natural - Lighting , etc.
- Accidental - Pot on the stove
- Incendiary - deliberately ignited
Who is the ASTM
the American Society of Testing and Materials
What is one of the most significant factors in size up?
One of the best starting points to prevent future fires is…
understanding the causes of fires that have occurred in the past
Who is responsible for conducting the fire investigation ass well as completing the NFIRS documents?
The IC - sometimes the IC delegates this responsibility to the first arriving fire officer
A fire officer may receive a subordinate’s evaluation form from HR how long before the evaluation is due to be submitted?
1 -2 months before
A term that has been borrowed from the retail business world where the focus is on fixing problems, correcting errors, etc is called?
The scientific process of examining a fire occurrence to determine all of the relevant facts.
The actions that are needed to to accomplish a strategic goal are in what level of command
Tactical level- Such as having groups or Divisions
This is a comprehensive, national, all hazards approach to domestic incident response that describes specific authorities and best practices.
National Response Framework
What are the 3 possible types of CITIZEN complaints?
- Complaint about the conduct or behavior of a firefighter or group.
- A complaint about a fire company’s performance or service
- Fire dept. policy
Guide for the scientific process for Fire and Explosion Investigation
What is the first goal of the officer charged with the responsibility of the fire investigation?
To determine whether a formal fire investigation is needed.
CERT was first implemented by who?
LAFD in 1985
The stairwell support group report to who? and is positioned where?
Support Branch Director and are positioned every 3rd floor
A fire officer can identify any under-performing employee early on in the annual evaluation period by conducting what …
Conducting informal reviews throughout the year
Span of control equas to
3-7 with many experts agreeing that 5 is the acceptable number
Single unit resources operate at what level of the ICS
A formal notice of substandard work performance should be given to an employee how long before their annual evaluation?
At least 10 weeks before
The only way to go from a ventilation limited fire to a fuel limited fire is through the application of water before vertical ventilation
Focusing on meeting the customer’s expectations is known as…
What are the 4 steps in the conflict resolution model?
- Listening and take detailed noted
- Active listening
- Paraphrase and feedback
- Do not explain or EXCUSE
National statistics indicate that 1 in every 4 fires are of incendiary origin
For emergency operations the recommended span of control is ?? individuals to 1 supervisor
What are the 3 command options when arriving on scene?
- Fast Attack
- Investigation mode
- Command mode
What are the 5 components of NIMS?
- Communications & information Management
- Resource Management
- Command & Management
- Ongoing Management & Maintenance
What are considered the 3 types of evidence ?
- Demonstrative- tangible items that can be identified
- Documentary - evidence in written form such as photos, sketches, witness statements
- Testimonial evidence- Witness speaking under oath
Cause determination can be approached as a 3 step process which is…
- Determine the source of ignition
- Determine the fuel that was ignited; both the type of material and the form
- Determine the circumstances or human actions that allowed the ignition source and and the fuel o come together.
What type of programs require the fire officer to conduct a monthly evaluation each probationary firefighter?
STRUCTURED probationary programs
What are the 3 levels of command?
A generic term that can be applied to either a geographical or functional component
What are Micheal Taigman’s 4 steps to his conflict resolution model?
- Drain the emotional bubble
- Understand the complainant’s viewpoint
- Help the complainant feel understood
- Identify the complainants expectations for a resolution
By training to meet performance standards, using rewards and punishments judiciously, instilling confidence in, and creating a knowledgeable collective will; the fire officer builds…
The volume between an inlet and an exhaust that allows the movement of heat and smoke from a higher pressure area toward a lower pressure area accessible through doors, windows or other opening
Positive discipline is reinforced by…
recognizing improved performance and rewarding excellent performance.
Standard for deployment of Volunteer fire companies for emergency operations
Determining the point of origin requires the analysis of the information from what 4 sources?
- The physical marks, fire patterns
- Observations made by witnesses present at the time of the fire.
- Analysis of the physics and chemistry of fire initiation, development, and growth
- Noting the location where electrical arching has caused damage.
What distinctive difference will buildings with 13R automatic sprinkler systems have vs others
Taller buildings with longer hallways
5 indicators of Incendiary Fire…
- Disabled built in fire protection system
- Delayed notification or difficulty getting to the fire
- Accelerants and trailers used
- Multiple points of origin
- Tampered or altered equipment
The area of command that is directly responsible for the management of all actions that is directly related to controlling the incident
In contrast to Sunrise OPM’s whish states 19; the FO book states how many ESF’s as part of the National Response Framework
What is the end result of a good scene size up
Incident action plan that considers all the important information, defines the strategies and tactics and assigns resources to complete those tasks
What are the 3 Phases of size up as per the NFA
- Preincident information
- Initial size up
- Ongoing size up
Dealing with problems requires 4 things…
What law states:: Fire fighters are not only charged with the task of extinguishing the fire, but also finding the cause .
Michigan vs Tyler 1978
Represents an OFFICIAL negative supervisory action at the lowest level of the progressive discipline process
FORMAL written Reprimand
In a High rise incident this area is where the primary logistics functions are coordinated and administered
The incident Base
IRIC is defined by what NFPA
The area safety council and hospitals are valuable resources for information on what.
The prevention of accident and injuries
What is the FIRST priority of the support branch at a high rise fire ?
This section is responsible for the collection, evaluation, and dissemination and use of information relevant to the incident …
A no smoke showing fire should INCREASE the fire officers caution and awareness of the conditions inside the structure?
After all investigative possibilities have been exhausted, if two or more potential causes remain, the cause of the fire is considered undetermined
What type of search warrant is needed for reentry when the purpose is to determine the cause and origin
Administrative Search Warrant
How many steps does the typical evaluation process consist of?
The first component for helping fire fighters feel empowered and learn more about their job can be described as
Local Government 101
When is Fire prevention week?
The Sunday- Saturday in which October 8 falls into. Since 1922
AS per NFPA 1021 who is the individual charged with the task of issuing formal evaluations and discipline?
Fire Officer 2; managing fire officer
The analysis of what is closely related to fire intensity
Standard for fire service Rapid Entry Crews
What is the second step in the evaluation process?
The subordinate is allowed to review the and comment on the officers evaluation.
Layman’s 5 step size up process
“Fat People Smell Donuts Perfectly”
- Plan of Operation
The NFPA recommends 3 steps when working with the media which are…
- Build a strong foundation
- Proactive outreach
- Measured Responsiveness -represent the dept in a positive light
A FORMAL written reprimand should contain the following information…
- A statement of the charges as detailed as possible so the firefighter understands the violation.
- A clear statement that this is an official letter of reprimand and will be placed in the employees file.
- List of the previous offenses in which case the letter is a continuation of the progressive discipline.
- A statement that similar occurrences could lead up to more severe discipline
Standards for Fire Investigator
What is the starting point for positive discipline?
is to establish a set of expectations for behavior and performance.