Flashcards in Chartism Deck (17):
What year did the London Working Men's Association (LWMA) create the 'People's Charter'?
It was published in May 1838
What were the six points of the 'People's Charter?
- Universal manhood suffrage:all men over the age of 21 would be allowed to vote.
-Vote by secret ballot: votes would be cast without fear of pressure from landlords or employers.
- Annual Parliaments: general elections would take place every year
-Equal electoral districts: all constituencies contained roughly the same number of electors.
Abolition of the property qualification for MP's: parliamentary candidates no longer had to own property
Payment for MP's: working men could afford to give up their jobs and become MP's
What were the reasons for the emergence of Chartism?
-Disappointment at the Reform Act of 1832: Majority of working-class men still could no vote as a result of the property qualification.
-The Factory Act 1833: Parliament showed little interest in improving the working conditions of men and women working in factories.
-The Municipal Corporations Act 1835: Parliament extended the vote for local town councils to all ratepayers. This meant it only benefited the middle-classes as most working-class men weren't wealthy enough to be ratepayers.
The 'war of the unstampered' press: Since the acts of 1918 newspapers had to pay a stamp duty which was intended to deprive the radical press of its working class readers as it increased the price of newspaper to 3d (equivalent to £1 today). In 1836 this changed as the tax was lowered to 1 1/2d. Showed how a determined and well organised campaign could force the government to give way.
What was the Anti-Poor Law and why did it lead to more people supporting Chartism?
Since Elizabethan times, the poor, sick, unemployed, disabled and people in need were given 'poor relief' by the parish. The parish was the main unit of local government and was responsible for the care of the poor.
The Whig government passed the new Poor Law in 1834, with its aims to cut the spending of the government on poor relief. Relief would only be made available in the workhouse and the conditions inside them were to be 'less eligible than those of the poorest paid worker outside. This was a direct attack on the working-class population and angered them.
What did the new Poor Law lead to?
- Emergence of a mass movement
-Radical leaders began to tour the country and gave speeches
- Feargus O'Connor became the best known and most powerful Chartist leader and started his own newspaper called the Northern Star
What was the result in the House of Commons when they voted on the new Poor Law repeal?
-It was voted against by 309 votes to 17
- This highlighted how in order to change their lives working men would have to enter Parliament themselves
What year was the Combinations Acts repealed and what did it contain?
-Led to the re-establishment of many trade unions
What was the Irish Coercion Act of 1833?
-One of the most repressive pieces of Irish legislation of the 19th Century
- Gave the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland powers to suppress any public meetings; arbitrary arrest became commonplace; and offenders were to be tried by court martial rather than in the civil courts.
What year did the London Working Men's Association form?
Who was the leader of the London Working Men's Association?
What were the aims of the London Working Men's Association?
- Made up of mainly politically aware artisans, such as craftsmen and tailors.
- Conservative outlook: promotion of political and social rights
- Education opportunities for all
Campaigning methods of the London Working Men's Association?
- Believed in peaceful protests, or moral force, which would persuade parliament to embrace social and political change.
Who was Henry Hetherington?
-Radical journalist and publisher who Poor Man's Guardian (1831-35)
-Led the 'war of the unstampered press'
-Imprisoned twice because he didn't obey the stamp duty tax and sold his newspapers cheaply at a penny. The government reduced the stamp duty to just 1d in 1835 (75%) .
How many copies of the Poor Man's Guardian sold every week in the year 1836?
How did the economic depression effect the support for Chartism in the 1830's and early 1840's?
The years 1837-42 were the most difficult in the whole century for working people.
In what year was the Northern Star first published?