chatper 1 Matter, Measurement, and Problem solving. Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chatper 1 Matter, Measurement, and Problem solving. Deck (62):
1

What properties determine properties of matter?

The properties of atoms and molecules

2

What determines how matter behaves?

Atoms and Molecules

3

Define Unprecendent

Never been done before

4

What does a Carbonmonoxide consist of?

A carbon atom and an oxygen atom held together by chemical bonds.

Carbonmonoxide is a colerless gas.

C0

5

What are Atoms?

A submicroscopic particles that consitute the fundamental building blocks of ordinary matter.

6

 What are Molecules?

Are Atoms binded together in specific geometrical arrangments to form molecules

7

What is Hemoglobin?

A large Protein molecule, the oxygen carrier in red blood cells.

  • Each subunit of the hemoglobin molecule contains an iron atom which oxygen binds.

8

What the difference between Carbon-monoxide and Carbon Dioxide?

Carbon Dioxide molecules contain two Oxygen atoms instead of one. 

 

We breath much more carbon Dioxide which composes of 0.04% of air, and is a product of drown respiration 

The presence of the secound oxygen atom prevents carbon dioxide from binding to the oxygen carrying site in hemoglobin, making it less toxic.

9

Whats the difference between Water and Hydrogen-Peroxide?

Water is drinkable and can be placed on human skin while on the other hand Hydrogen-Peroxide contains one more oxygen than a water molcule does and in that case it burns the skin and it also can be used as rocket fuel.

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10

Chemistry

The science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules.

11

What is Empirical

based on, concerned with, or verifiable by observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic.



Based on observation and experiment.

12

Qualitative

noting or descibing how a process happens. 

 

Using words rather than numbers

13

Quanatitative

measuring or quantifying something about a process.

 

Using numbers rather words 

14

Hypothesis

a tenative interpretation or explanation of the obsevations.

 

 

15

Falsifiable

Means that it makes predictions that can be confirmed or refuted by further observations.

 

or refutability of a statement, hypothesis, or theory is the inherent possibility that it can be proven false. A statement is called falsifiable if it is possible to conceive of an observation or an argument which negates the statement in question.

16

Experiments

Highly controlled procedures designed to generate observations that may confirm or refute a hypothesis.

17

Scientific Law

A brief statement that summarizes past obsevations and predicts future ones.

"describes how nature behalves"

Also Known As Principles.

18

Law Of Conservation of Mass

"in chemical reaction, matter is neither created or nor destroyed."

19

Theory

When one or more hypothesis is well established.

(Are Validated Experiments)

 

20

Scientific theory

A model for the way nature is and trys to explain not merely what nature does and but why.

21

Atomic Theory

In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientifictheory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms. ... The word atom comes from the Ancient Greek adjective atomos, meaning "indivisible"

(unable to be divided or seperated)

22

Matter 

Anything that occupies space and has mass

23

Substance

a specific instance of matter such as air, water, or sand.

24

State (matter)

Physical form of mater.

25

composition (matter)

Basic components that make up matter.

26

Name the three different states of matter.

  1. Solid
  2. Liquid 
  3. Gas

27

Crystalline

A solid matter  in which its atoms or molecules are in patterns with long-range, repeating order.

Example, table salt and Diamonds.

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28

Amorphous

In which case its atoms or molecules do not have any long range order.

Example, glass and plastic

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29

Liquids

have loose packef atoms, liquid matter does not have a fixed shape.

30

Gaseous matter

atoms or molecules that have a loot of space betweeen them.

Example, gases at room temperature  Helium, Nitrogen (the main component of air), and carbon dioxide.

31

Pure Substance 

Made up of only one component and its composition is invariant (it does not vary from one sample to another).

  • Components can be individual atoms or groups of atoms joined together.

Example, Hellium, Water, table salt (sodium chloride).

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32

Mixture

Is composed of two or more components in proportions that can vary from one sample to another.

 

Example, Sweetened Tea

33

What are the two catergories of pure substance? 

Explain them 

  1. Elements 
  2. Compounds
  • Elements- Helium is a pure substance that cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances.
  • Compound- water is a pure substance composed of two or more elements (hydrogen and oxygen H20) in a fixed definite proportion.

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34

What are the two types of Mixtures?

  1. Heterogeneous
  2. Homogeneous

 

  • Heterogeneous- wet sand is a heterogenous mixture Because its composition varies from one region of the mixture to another. Made up of distinct regions Because Atoms and molecules that compose them seperate.
  • Homogenous- Sweetened tea, one withe the same compostion throughout. Homogenous mixture have uniform compostions because the atoms or molecules that compose them mix uniformly.

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35

Decanting (seperating mixtures)

can seperate heterogenous mixtures. 

Example, we can seperate a mixture of sand and water by decanting- carefully pouring off water into another container.

36

Distillation (seperating mixtures)

A homogenous mixture of liquids can be sperated by distillation, a process in which the mixture is heated to boil off the more volatile(easily vaporizable) liquid. The Volatile liquid is then recondensed in a condenser and collected in a seperate flask.

37

Filtration (seperating mixtures)

If a mixture is composed of an insoluble(incapable of being dissolved) solid and liquid, we can sperate the two by filtration, 

in which the mixture is poured through paper in a funnel.

38

Physical Change

Changes that alter only state or appearance, but not composition.

Atoms or molecules that compose of a substance do not change their idenity during physical change.

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39

Chemical Change

Changes that alter the composition of matter.

Atoms rearange, transforming the orginal substances into different substances.

 

occur when a substance combines with another to form a new substance.

 

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40

Physical Property

a property that a substance displays without changing its composition. 

Example, odor, taste, color, apperance, melting point, boiling point, and density.

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41

Chemical Property

a property that a substance displays only by changing its composition via a chemical change.

Including, corrosiveness, flammability, acidity, toxicity, and other characteristics.

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42

Energy

The capacity to do work.

43

Work

Is Defined as the action of a force through a distance. 

Example, When you push a box across the floor or pedal you bike across the street, you have done work.

44

Kinetic energy 

The energy associated with its motion. 

Example if you drop a weight, it accelerates, and its potential energy is converted.

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45

Potential energy

The energy associated with its position to kinetic energy. or compisition.

Example, a weight held several meters above the ground has potential energy due to its position within earths gravitational field.

46

Thermal energy

The energy associated with motion of the individual atoms or molecules that make up an object.

Example, if you drop a weight and the weight hits the ground, its kinetic energy is converted to primarly thermal energy.

Thermal energy is a type of kenetic energy because it is associated with the motion of the individual atoms or molecules that make up the object.

The weight hitting the ground raises the temperature of the ground.

47

Law of conservation of Energy

is the idea that energy is neither created nor destroyed.

  • Although energy can change from one type into another, and although it can flow from one object to another, the total quantity of energy does not change- it remains the same.

48

Units

Standard quantities used to specify measurments.

49

Metric system

type of measurment system, used in most of the world

50

English measurment system

Used in the United States

51

International Sytem Of Units (SI)

Scientists use SI which is based on the metric system.

52

Meter (M)

Standard unit of length.

1yd= 36inches

1m = 39.37 inches.

football field is 100yds = 91.4m

 

53

Kilogram (Kg)

standard unit of mass

1Kg of mass = 2.205lbs on earth.

54

Second (s)

standard unit of time

55

Kelvin (K)

standard unit of temperature.

Temperature is a measure of molecular motion.

(kinetic energy-energy due to motion).

56

Mass

The measure of the quantity of matter within it.

57

Weight

a measure of the gravitational pull on its matter.

58

Gram (g)

unit of mass

1g = 1000kg = 2.205lbs

59

Heat

Temperature determines the direction of thermal energy transfer.

60

What are the three most common temperature scales?

give there freezing points and boiling points.

describe where each temperature scale is used.

 

  1. Fahrenheight *F scale- most common in the United States
  • Water freezes at 32 *F and boils at 212 *F at sea level.
  • Allows for negative temperatures

     2. Celsius *C scale- Scientist and citezens of most countries                  use celsius.

  • Pure water freezes at 0 *C and boils at 100 *C (at sea level)
  • Allows for negative temperatures

     3. Kelvin scale- is the SI unit for temperature (international standards for units) **somtimes also called absolute scale**

  • Avoids negativte temperatures by assigning 0 K
  • to the coldest temperature possible., absolute Zero.
  • Absolute Zero (-273 *C or -459 *F) is the temperature were molecular motion virtually stops. Lower Temperatures do not exist.

 

The size of the kelvin scale is identical to the size of the celsius scale. The only difference is the temperature that each scale designates as Zero.

 

ºC = (ºF-32)/ 1.8

 

K = ºC + 273.15

 

61

Prefix Multiplier

These Multipliers change the value of the unit by powers of 10 (just like an exponent does in scientific notation).

-For example, the kilometer has the prefix Kilo

meaning 1000 or 10therefore,

1 Kilometer= 1000 meters= 103

 

Millimeter has the prefix milli meaning 0.001 or 10-3

1 Millimeter = 0.001 meters = 10-3 meters

62

SI prefix multipliers

  • The       Tera    T=x1012
  • Great     Giga   G=x109
  • Mind      Mega  M=x106
  • King       Kilo      K=x103
  • Henry     Hecta  H=x102
  • Doesnt   Deca    D=x101
  • Usually    UNIT OF MEASUREMENT
  • Drink       Deci     d=x10-1
  • Chocolate  Centi  c=x10-2
  • Milk          Milli      m=x10-3
  • Move over   Micro µ=x10-6
  • No              Nano    n=x10-9
  • Pictures      Pico     p=x10-12

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