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Flashcards in Chemical and biogeochemical effects Deck (38)
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1

How does the ability of the oceans to absorb CO2 change as atmospheric CO2 changes?

The ability of sea water to absorb CO2 drops as atmospheric CO2 increases

2

How do phytoplankton respond to iron availability?

If there is more dust present, there is more iron available ... this encourages phytoplankton growth

3

What chemical processes do we need to consider in our models?

-Ocean chemistry
-Role of ozone
-Atmospheric chemistry
-Methane lifetime
-Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

4

What is the average pH of the oceans?

pH 8

5

How does the ocean act as a biological pump?

-Phytoplankton absorb CO2
-Zooplankton consume phytoplankton
-Respiration returns CO2 to the atmosphere
-Some organic matter sinks to the deep ocean ... net uptake of CO2

6

Where is CO2 recycled in the ocean?

In the upper 1 km

7

What % of organic matter sinks to the deep ocean?

5-10%

8

What is phytoplankton growth limited by?

-Light
-Nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, iron)

9

In what regions is iron a major limiting nutrient?

-Equitorial pacific
-Southern Ocean

10

How is iron delivered to the ocean?

Through dust

11

Where in the ocean do your find nutrient 'deserts'?

The centre of gyres

12

Who proposed the iron hypothesis?

John Martin

13

What is the iron hypothesis?

-Fertilise low-chlorophlull zones
-Create algal blooms
-Boost primary productivity
-Drive down CO2

14

How many studies on iron fertilisation experience have shown a CO2 draw down?

Only one of over 12 studies ... (Boyd, 2000: showed a doubling of biomass and a CO2 draw down)

15

When were commercial iron fertilisation experiments banned?

2013

16

Which convention prevents iron fertilisation experiments?

The UN convention on biological diversity

17

How much dust was dumped into the oceans after the Pinatubo eruption?

40,000 tonnes

18

How could the relationship between iron availability and climate cause a positive feedback loop?

-warmer, wetter climate ... less dust ... less iron deposition ... fewer nutrients ... fewer phytoplankton ... less oceanic CO2 absorption

19

How could the relationship between iron availability and climate cause a negative feedback loop?

-arid regions get drier ... more dust ... more iron deposition ... more nutrients ... more phytoplankton ... more oceanic CO2 absorption

20

What is DMS?

Dimethyl Sulphide ... emitted by phytoplankton as a natural byproduct of metabolism

21

What is one hypothesis for why DMS is emitted?

To protect phytoplankton from UV radiation

22

What does DMS do?

-gives the sea water its smell
-forms natural aerosol

23

What is the chemical formula for DMS?

(CH3)2S

24

What happens to DMS in the atmosphere?

Oxidised and condensed into aerosols

25

What is the CLAW hypothesis?

A negative climate feedback loop
-ocean warms
-enhanced phytoplankton growth
-enhanced DMS production
-More aerosol produced
-More cloud condensation nuclei
-Ehanced cloud area
-Enhanced albedo ... reflecting sunlight

26

Who proposed the CLAW hypothesis?

C-Charlson
L-Lovelock
A-Andreae
W-Warren

27

When was the CLAW hypothesis first proposed?

1897

28

What is the controversy surrounding the CLAW hypothesis?

Lovelock (one who originally proposed the hypothesis) contracted this in The Revenge of Gaia ... could it be a positive loop instead? ... increased stratification ... reduced upwelling ... less DMS production ...

29

How much is the stratosphere cooling?

0.5ºC a decade

30

What is chemistry of the ozone dependent on?

Temperature