Flashcards in chemical messenger Deck (19):
What are the 2 types of hormones?
Protein/amine and steroid
How do protein/amine hormone work?
Protein attaches to the receptor proteins on the cell membrane surface then stimulates an enzyme to become active which activates secondary messenger.
How do steroid hormones work?
The hormone passes through the cell membrane and either binds with a receptor in the cytoplasm or inside the nucleus to activate a response.
How does a endocrine gland work?
secrete hormones into the extracellular fluid that surrounds cells near the gland and then passes through to capillaries to be transported around the body by blood.
how do exocrine glands work?
secrete hormones into the body surface using ducts
What is enzyme amplification
Activation of thousands of enzyme molecules
Hormone triggers a cascading effect in which the number of reacting molecules involved is increased in hundreds.
What is hormone clearance?
turning 'off' a hormone
breaking down of hormone molecules in kidney and liver which then end up in the urine
How is hormone secretion controlled?
regulated by negative feedback or positive feedback sometimes
hypothalamus can secrete releasing factors which stimulate the secretion of hormones or inhibiting factors which slow down the secretion of a hormone
Name the hormones the anterior pituitary glands release
thyroid stimulating hormone
Name the hormones the posterior lobe releases
Name the target organ and main effects of hormones released from the anterior pituitary
FSH - ovaries - growth of follicles and testes - production of sperm
LH - ovaries - ovulation and maintenance of corpus leteum and testes - secretion of tesosterone
Growth hormone - all cells - growth and protein synthesis
TSH - thyroid gland -secretion of hormones from the thyroid
ACTH - adrenal cortex - secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex
prolactin - mammary glands (tits) - milk production
Name the target organ and main effects of hormones released from the anterior pituitary gland
ADH - kidneys - reabsorption of water
Oxytocin - uterus - contraction of uterus during child birth and mammary glands - release of milk
What are the main endocrine glands and secrete hormones?
what is the hormone released by the thyroid and parathyroid and its target cells and main effects?
THYROID thyroxine, most cells and increases metabolic rate and therefore oxygen consumption and heat production
PARATHYROID- parathyroid hormone - cells of bones and kidneys and increases level of calcium in blood
What is the hormone released by the thymus and its target organ and main effect?
targets t lympocytes
stimulates development and maturation of lymphocytes
What is the hormones released by adrenal cortex and medulla and the target cells and main effects?
ADRENAL CORTEX releases corticosteroids
aldersterone targets kidney cells and increases reabsorption of sodium ions and excretion of potassium ions
cortisol targets most cells and helps promotes normal metabolism and helps body deal with stress and repair of damaged tissues
releases adrenaline and noraadrenaline effects most tissues and prepares the body for flight or fight responses. effects the sympathetic nervous system
What is the hormones released by the pancreas and the target cells and main effects?
insulin targets most cells and stimulates uptake of glucose which lowers blood glucose levels
glucagon targets liver and fat storage tissues which breaks down glucagen and fat which increases blood glucose levels
What is the hormones released by the testes and its main effects and target cells?
releases androgen which targets most cells and stimulates sperm production and growth of skeleton and muscles. development of male sexual characteristics