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Flashcards in Chemistry Deck (70):
1

What elements make up water?

Hydrogen and oxygen

2

In H2O What does the subscript 2 following the H represent?

The number of hydrogen in a molecule

3

Why doesn't the O have a subscript?

Only one oxygen

4

How many molecules of water are represented by the formula H2O?

One

5

A formula giving the number of atoms of each of the elements present in one molecule of a specific compound

molecular formula

6

What is the molecular formula of water?

H2O

7

A physical representation of the molecule in space

Structural formula

8

What do the lines between O and H represent?

Chemical bonds

9

Molecules of monosaccharides have the same molecular formula

Isomerism

10

_____+______= double sugar/ disaccharide

Two monosaccharides

11

Explain why chemists refer to the joining of monosaccharide molecules to form a disaccharide as a dehydration synthesis reaction

When the monosaccharides join together water is released, and a disaccharide is being created. Created=synthesis No water= dehydration

12

What are the four major groups of organic molecules found in living organisms?

Carbohydrates, fats, protein, nucleic acids

13

What is the amino acid?

The basic structural unit of all proteins

14

How many different amino acids are there known to exist?

20

15

What type of molecule is needed to form protein molecules?

amino acids

16

How do amino acid molecules differ from fatty acid molecules?

Fatty acids don't have nitrogen (do not have an amino group)

17

A protein consisting of four amino acids undergoes hydrolysis. How many water molecules must be broken down and reattached to amino acid molecules during this process?

3 (always one less than the amount of amino acids)

18

What do all organic compounds contain?and what is the one exception?

Carbon. Carbon dioxide

19

In order to split amino dipeptides, polysaccharides, and triglycerides (fats) into smaller units ______has to be added. This process of splitting large molecules into smaller units is called_____.

Water . Hydrolysis

20

Compounds ending with the suffix "ose" such as maltose, fructose, sucrose, are what types of macromolecules?

Carbohydrates

21

Adenin, guanine, cytosine, ukacil, and thymine help make up what macromolecules?

DNA & RNA

22

Adenin, guanine, cytosine, ukacil, and thymine belong to what group of macromolecules?

Nucleic acids

23

How many fatty acids combine with a molecule of glycerol to form a triglyceride?

3

24

What is the storage form of sugar found in humans?

Glycogen

25

Forming a dipeptide between 2 amino acids is an example of....?

Dehydration synthesis

26

Explain the difference between dehydration and hydrolysis

In dehydration H2O (water) is removed to create a larger molecule
In hydrolysis H2O (water) is being added to separate a molecule into 2 (smaller)

27

What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?

Saturated is solid a room temperature
Unsaturated is liquid at room temperature

28

Identify the amino group and acid group: H2N OllClOH ( the l is a bond)

Amino= H2N
Acid group= OllClOH

29

Which of the following statements is true about the bond formed between two atoms of carbon?
A). It involves the sharing of protons
B). It involved the Sharing of electrons
C). It involves the sharing of neutrons
D). It contains ATP
E). It cannot be broken

B). It involves the sharing of electrons

30

Describe glucose..

A six sided monosaccharide

31

What does isomerom mean

Same molecular formula different structure 3D

32

What is a sugar humans cannot digest?

Cellulose

33

What is the structural sugar for plants?

Cellulose

34

What is the structural sugar for animals?

Chitin

35

What is how mammals store sugar?

Glycogen

36

What is how plants store sugar?

Starch

37

What gives away whether something is a protein or not?

Has nitrogen

38

What gives away whether something is sugar or not?

The ratio of H to O is always 2/1

39

What gives away whether something is a fat?

Has no nitrogen and is only made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen

40

What is COOH?

Amino acid

41

What happens when you add water?

Take molecules apart

42

What happens when you remove water?

Join molecules together

43

What do all enzymes end in?

-se

44

What do enzymes do?

Speed up chemical reactions

45

How do you figure out the number of neutrons in an atom?

Atomic mass-atomic number= # of neutrons in an atom

46

What is meant by valence electrons?

The outer most shell of electrons

47

What sub atomic particle is most important in the bonding of atoms

Electrons

48

What is the difference between ionic and covalent bonds?

Ionic is the taking and giving of an electron.
Covalent is the sharing of electrons

49

what happens to the overall charge of an atom when it loses an electron?

It's overall charge becomes more positive by one

50

Explain the octect rule

atoms of main-group elements combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell

51

What level of organization represents the basic unit of life?

Cells

52

What can you learn from the atomic number and the atomic mass of an atom?

You can get the number of protons and find the number of neutrons

53

What is the difference between polar covalent bonds and nonpolar covalent bonds?

Polar is uneven bonding because oxygen is pulling the electrons towards it

54

what are the properties that allow the water skeeter to literally walk on water?

Cohesion

55

how many electrons can be found in the seventh energy level?

98

56

What is cohesion

When water is attracted to water. Allows water to stay together

57

What is adhesion?

Allows water to travel

58

What is an acid?

Increases the hydrogen ion

59

What is a base?

Reduces the hydrogen ion

60

What are uphill reactions?

Building

61

What are downhill reactions?

Digesting

62

Give examples of disaccharides..

Sucrose. Lactose. Maltose.

63

Give examples of polysaccharides..

Starch. Glycogen. Cellulose

64

What are the three types of nucleic acids?

DNA RNA ATP

65

In RNA what combines with what?

A and U

66

What is ATP made up of?

Adenine and Ribose

67

Lipids are not ______but long chains of _______.

Polymers. Hydrocarbons

68

What are polypeptides?

Polymers of amino acids

69

What are the nucleotides in nucleic acid?

A adenine T thymine U uracil C cytosine and G guanine

70

What is ATP

High energy molecule used by cells to do work