Flashcards in Chemistry Deck (70):
What elements make up water?
Hydrogen and oxygen
In H2O What does the subscript 2 following the H represent?
The number of hydrogen in a molecule
Why doesn't the O have a subscript?
Only one oxygen
How many molecules of water are represented by the formula H2O?
A formula giving the number of atoms of each of the elements present in one molecule of a specific compound
What is the molecular formula of water?
A physical representation of the molecule in space
What do the lines between O and H represent?
Molecules of monosaccharides have the same molecular formula
_____+______= double sugar/ disaccharide
Explain why chemists refer to the joining of monosaccharide molecules to form a disaccharide as a dehydration synthesis reaction
When the monosaccharides join together water is released, and a disaccharide is being created. Created=synthesis No water= dehydration
What are the four major groups of organic molecules found in living organisms?
Carbohydrates, fats, protein, nucleic acids
What is the amino acid?
The basic structural unit of all proteins
How many different amino acids are there known to exist?
What type of molecule is needed to form protein molecules?
How do amino acid molecules differ from fatty acid molecules?
Fatty acids don't have nitrogen (do not have an amino group)
A protein consisting of four amino acids undergoes hydrolysis. How many water molecules must be broken down and reattached to amino acid molecules during this process?
3 (always one less than the amount of amino acids)
What do all organic compounds contain?and what is the one exception?
Carbon. Carbon dioxide
In order to split amino dipeptides, polysaccharides, and triglycerides (fats) into smaller units ______has to be added. This process of splitting large molecules into smaller units is called_____.
Water . Hydrolysis
Compounds ending with the suffix "ose" such as maltose, fructose, sucrose, are what types of macromolecules?
Adenin, guanine, cytosine, ukacil, and thymine help make up what macromolecules?
DNA & RNA
Adenin, guanine, cytosine, ukacil, and thymine belong to what group of macromolecules?
How many fatty acids combine with a molecule of glycerol to form a triglyceride?
What is the storage form of sugar found in humans?
Forming a dipeptide between 2 amino acids is an example of....?
Explain the difference between dehydration and hydrolysis
In dehydration H2O (water) is removed to create a larger molecule
In hydrolysis H2O (water) is being added to separate a molecule into 2 (smaller)
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
Saturated is solid a room temperature
Unsaturated is liquid at room temperature
Identify the amino group and acid group: H2N OllClOH ( the l is a bond)
Acid group= OllClOH
Which of the following statements is true about the bond formed between two atoms of carbon?
A). It involves the sharing of protons
B). It involved the Sharing of electrons
C). It involves the sharing of neutrons
D). It contains ATP
E). It cannot be broken
B). It involves the sharing of electrons
A six sided monosaccharide
What does isomerom mean
Same molecular formula different structure 3D
What is a sugar humans cannot digest?
What is the structural sugar for plants?
What is the structural sugar for animals?
What is how mammals store sugar?
What is how plants store sugar?
What gives away whether something is a protein or not?
What gives away whether something is sugar or not?
The ratio of H to O is always 2/1
What gives away whether something is a fat?
Has no nitrogen and is only made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen
What is COOH?
What happens when you add water?
Take molecules apart
What happens when you remove water?
Join molecules together
What do all enzymes end in?
What do enzymes do?
Speed up chemical reactions
How do you figure out the number of neutrons in an atom?
Atomic mass-atomic number= # of neutrons in an atom
What is meant by valence electrons?
The outer most shell of electrons
What sub atomic particle is most important in the bonding of atoms
What is the difference between ionic and covalent bonds?
Ionic is the taking and giving of an electron.
Covalent is the sharing of electrons
what happens to the overall charge of an atom when it loses an electron?
It's overall charge becomes more positive by one
Explain the octect rule
atoms of main-group elements combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell
What level of organization represents the basic unit of life?
What can you learn from the atomic number and the atomic mass of an atom?
You can get the number of protons and find the number of neutrons
What is the difference between polar covalent bonds and nonpolar covalent bonds?
Polar is uneven bonding because oxygen is pulling the electrons towards it
what are the properties that allow the water skeeter to literally walk on water?
how many electrons can be found in the seventh energy level?
What is cohesion
When water is attracted to water. Allows water to stay together
What is adhesion?
Allows water to travel
What is an acid?
Increases the hydrogen ion
What is a base?
Reduces the hydrogen ion
What are uphill reactions?
What are downhill reactions?
Give examples of disaccharides..
Sucrose. Lactose. Maltose.
Give examples of polysaccharides..
Starch. Glycogen. Cellulose
What are the three types of nucleic acids?
DNA RNA ATP
In RNA what combines with what?
A and U
What is ATP made up of?
Adenine and Ribose
Lipids are not ______but long chains of _______.
What are polypeptides?
Polymers of amino acids
What are the nucleotides in nucleic acid?
A adenine T thymine U uracil C cytosine and G guanine