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Exams Winter 2017 > Chemistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chemistry Deck (49):
1

What's the difference between philosophers and scientists?

Philosophers proposed solutions and scientists experimented and proved solutions.

2

What are isotopes?

Two atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.

3

What is the Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)?

1/12 of the mass of the atomic number.

4

How do you calculate AMU?

Multiply mass by percent abundance.

5

Which radiation particle is the least penetrating?

Alpha particle

6

Which radiation particle is the middle penetrating?

Betta particle

7

Which radiation particle is the most penetrating?

Gamma particle

8

What is nuclear force?

An attractive force that acts between all nuclear particles that are extremely close together.

9

What are protons equal to?

The atomic number.

10

What do you add to figure out the atomic mass?

Neutrons and Protons.

11

What do you subtract to figure out how many neutrons there are?

Atomic mass and protons.

12

What is the Kinetic Theory?

That particles in a gas are small, hard, spherical, and have insignificant volume.

13

What does a barometer measure?

Atmospheric pressure.

14

What is the difference between vaporization and evaporation?

Vaporization occurs at the surface of a liquid that is BOILING.

15

What is vapor pressure?

A force exerted by a gas above liquids.

16

What is equilibrium?

Where the rate of evaporation = the rate of condensation.

17

What does a manometer measure?

Vapor pressure of a liquid.

18

What is the normal boiling point?

101.3 kPa

19

What is an allotrope?

Two or more different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state.

20

What are the 3 types of carbon allotropes?

1. Diamond
2. Graphite
3. Fullerene

21

What does an amorphous solid lack?

Internal structure.

22

What is a triple point?

A set of conditions where all three phases can exist.

23

What is compressability?

The measure of how much volume of matter decreases under pressure.

24

What 3 factors affect gas pressure?

1. Amount of particles
2. Shape of container
3. Temperature

25

What is the formula for Boyle's Law?

P1xV1=P2xV2

26

What's the formula for Charles' Law?

V1/T1=V2/T2

27

What is the formula for Gay Lussac's Law?

P1/T1+P2/T2

28

What is the formula for the combined Gas Law?

P1xV1/T1=P2xV2/T2

29

What kind of bonds do intermolecular attractions form?

Hydrogen bonds

30

What is surface tension?

The inward pull that minimizes surface area.

31

What is a surfacant?

Any substance that interferes with hydrogen bonding.

32

How does heat flow?

Warmer to colder.

33

Does the system gain or lose heat in an endothermic process?

Gain

34

Does the system gain or lose heat in an exothermic process?

Loses

35

What is 200,000 in scientific notation?

2.0x10^5

36

What is the accepted value?

The correct value based on reliable measurements.

37

What is the experimental value?

Measured in a lab

38

How do you determine error?

experimental value-accepted value

39

What is the SI unit for volume?

Liter (L)

40

What is the absolute zero?

Where particle movement stops.

41

What kind of property is density?

Intensive.

42

Does volume increase or decrease as temperature increases?

Increases.

43

What always happens during a chemical change?

The composition of matter always changes.

44

Iron and surfur react. What is the reactant and the product?

Reactant: Iron and Sulfur
Product: Iron Sulfide

45

What are the four ways you can tell a chemical change has taken place?

1. Change in color
2. Production of gas
3. Transfer of energy
4. Formation of a precipitate

46

What does every chemical change involve?

Transfer of energy.

47

What is the scientific method?

Making observations, testing hypotheses, and developing theories.

48

What is the acronym for the metric prefixes?

Kangaroos Hop Down Bumpy Driveways Chasing Monkeys

49

What's the difference between intensive and extensive properties?

Extensive properties depends on the amount of matter in a sample while intensive properties depend on the type of matter.