Chemistry [ Aqueous Solutions - Nuclear Chemistry] Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chemistry [ Aqueous Solutions - Nuclear Chemistry] Deck (31)
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1

Non-electrolyte

do not conduct electricity

2

Weak Electrolyte

weak conductors of electricity

3

Strong electrolyte

good conductors

4

Precipitate

insoluble substance which is produced from a chemical reaction

5

Rule for Solubility

Polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents

6

percent by mass

(mass of component/mass of solution) x100%

7

percent by volume

(Volume of component/volume of solution) x100%

8

parts per million

(mass of component/mass of solution) x10^6

9

parts per billion

(mass of component/mass of solution) x10^9

10

Mole Fraction (x)

mass of component
----------------------------
(total moles of all components)

11

Molarity (M)

number of moles solute, mol
-----------------------------------------
total volume of solution, L

12

Molality (m)

number of moles solute, mol
-----------------------------------------
mass in kg solvent

13

Normality (N)

equivalent solute
---------------------------
total volume of solution, L

14

Thermochemistry

study of heat changes between the system and the surroundings

15

Law of Conversation of Energy

energy released is always equal to the energy absorbed

16

Enthalpy of reaction

Heat associated in a chemical reaction
kilojoules (kj)

17

Endothermic

absorb energy

18

Exothermic

release energy

19

1 cal

4.1864

20

R=

.0821 L-atm/ K-mol

21

Equilibrium State

achieved when a large amount of products are formed which now pushes the reaction to go into the reverse direction

the formation of the products is equal to the formation of the initial reactants

22

La Chatelier's Principle

any equilibrium that is subjected to stress will shift to a direction that will relieve the stress

23

Chemical Kinetics

study of the rate of chemical reactions

24

Activation Energy

amount of energy required for a reaction to occur

25

Higher Activation Energy

slower reaction

26

Factors Affecting the Rate of Reaction

1. nature of reactant
2. temperature
3. presence of catalyst
4. concentration

27

Radioactive Decay

Alpha
Beta
Positron
Gamma

28

Alpha

- 4 atomic mass
lose two neutrons and two protons

29

Beta

lose one proton and gain one neutron

30

Positron

lose one neutron and gain one proton