Flashcards in Chemistry exam 15.06-16 Deck (23):
An azeotrope or a constant boiling mixture is a mixture of two or more liquids whose proportions cannot be altered by simple distillation.
2 examples of azeotropes
- Positive: Ethanol
- Negative: Hydrochloric acid
Define colligative properties
Properties of solutions that depend on the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a solution, and not on the type of chemical species present.
2 examples of colligative properties
- Elevation of boiling point
- Depression of freezing point
Define the third law of thermodynamics
Regarding the properties of systems in equilibrium at absolute zero temperature:
Define Avogadro’s law
Equal volumes of all gases, at the same temperature and pressure, have the same number of molecules
Wright Van der Waals equation
Nernst equation for Zn
lnQ= ln (conc of reduced component/conc of oxidized component)
Define internal energy (equation)
In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system*
∆U ≝ Q + W
Stabilizers of colloids
- electrical charge
- hydration (solvation)
- protective colloids
Name a non-ionic surfactant and a cationic surfactant
- fatty alcohols,
- Cetyl alcohol,
- Stearyl alcohol,
- Cetostearyl alcohol
- Oleyl alcohol.
- Thonzonium bromide
Define reverse osmosis
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water.
Define retention factor is TLC
Rf= distance traveled by the compound/ distance traveled by the solvent front
0 < Rf < 1
Which is an example of a thickener?
Locus bean gum,
Which of the following contains phosphorous: DNA, DDT …
Which has a chiral atom: nicotine, pyrrole…
Starting unit in terpenes
Central ion of chlorophyll
Name 3 mycotoxins
and Fusarium toxins
Name and draw 3 methyl xanthine alkaloids?!
Theophylline, Theobromine and Caffeine
Name 3 aroma agents
Write the reaction equation for the formation of any nucleotide
Guanine + Ribose + Phosphate = GMP (guaninemonophosphate)