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Flashcards in Chemistry of the Elements Deck (115):
1

The rows of the periodic table are called ... . The properties of elements ... as you go along a period

The rows of the periodic table are called periods . The properties of elements change as you go along a period

2

The columns of the periodic table are called ...

The columns of the periodic table are called groups

3

What do elements in the same group have in common? Why? What changes?

elements in the same group have similar chemical properties

this is because they have the same number of electrons on their outer shell

the proprties of elements (such as reactivity) often gradually change as you go down a group (i.e. as the atomic number increases)

4

Do you metals conduct electricity? Why?

(they are the green)

metals conduct electricity because they allow charge to pass through them easily

5

Metal oxides are basic. What does this mean?

(they are the green)

this means they wil neautralise acids

metal oxides which dissolve will form solutions of a pH of more than 7

6

Do non-metals conduct electricity?

(they are the blue)

non-metals are poor conductors of electricity

7

Non-metals are acidic. What does this mean?

(they are the blue)

this means they dissolve in water to form solutions with a pH of less than 7

8

What state of matter do metals tend to be?

solids

e.g. mercury is an exception - it is a liquid

9

What are the differences in melting and boiling points between metals and non-metals?

metals tend to have high melting and boiling points

non-metals tend to have low metling and boiling points (carbon and silicon are obvious exceptions)

10

Do metals tend to have relatively low or relatively high densities?

metals tend to have relatively high densities

11

Metals are ... when they are polished (known as metallic ...), and tend to be easily ...

Metals are shiny when they are polished (known as metallic lustre), and tend to be easily workable

12

Non-metals tend to ... as solids and, even if they are crystalline, they don't have the same sort of ... a metals

Non-metals tend to brittle as solids and, even if they are crystalline, they don't have the same sort of shinea metals

13

What is the difference in conducting electricity and heat in metals and non-metals?

metals are good conductors of electricity and heat

non-metals usually don't conduct electricity - carbon (in the form of graphite) and silicon are exception

non-metals are poor conductors of heat

14

Metals form ... ions in their compounds. Non-metals form ... ions and ... compounds

Metals form positive ions in their compounds. Non-metals form negative ions and covalent compounds

15

What is Group 0? Which elements are in it?

the noble gases

(in order):
helium

neon

argon

krypton

xenon

radon

16

Noble gases are coloured/colourless gases

Noble gases are colourless​ gases

17

What percentage of the air is made up of Argon?

nearly 1%

18

Helium has the ... density of any gas

Helium has the second lowest density of any gas (after hydrogen)

19

All noble gases are monatomic/diatomic . What does this mean?

All noble gases are monatomic

This means that their molecules consist of single atoms

20

The density and boiling point of noble gases increases/decreases as you down the Group

Why is this?

The density and boiling point of noble gases increases as you down the Group

this is because the attractions between one molecules and its neighbour get stronger as the atoms get bigger

more energy is needed to break the stronger attractions

21

Noble gases do/don't form stable ions, and so do/don't produce ionic compounds

Noble gases don't form stable ions, and so don't produce ionic compounds

22

Noble gases are/aren't inert. What does this mean? Why?

Noble gases are ​inert

this means they don't react with much at all

this is because they have a full outer shell of electrons

23

What is Group 1 of the periodic table? What elements are in it?

the alkali metals

(in order):

lithium

sodium

potassium

rubidium

caesium

francium

24

The alkali metals have low/high melting and poling points (for metals), and get lower/higher as you go down the group

Their densities tend to ... as you go down the group

The alkali metals have low melting and poling points (for metals), and get lower as you go down the group

Their densities tend to increase as you go down the group

25

Which alkali metals float on water? Why?

lithium, sodium and potassium are less dense than water, so they will float

26

The alkali metals are very soft/hard and get softer/harder as you go down the group

They are ... but ... within seconds of exposure to air

The alkali metals are very soft and get softer as you go down the group

They are shiny but tarnish within seconds of exposure to air

27

How must the alkali metals be stored?

they have to be stored out of contact with air or water, so they are stored under oil

28

When lithium, sodium and potassium are put in water, how do they react?

they react vigorously

29

What does the reaction of an alkali metal with water produce? Is this alkaline or acidic?

a metal hydroxide and hydrogen

this solution is alkaline

30

What does aqueous (aq) mean?

dissolved in water

31

What is the word and symbol equation for the reaction of sodium with cold water?

sodium + cold water → sodium hydroxide + hydrogen

2Na (s) + 2H2(l) → 2NaOh (aq) + H2 (g)

 

32

Alkali metals have mainly ... (a colour) compounds which dissolve to produce coloured/colourless solutions

Alkali metals have mainly whit compounds which dissolve to produce colourless solutions

33

As you go down Group 1, the elements become less/more reactive as the atomic number increases/decreases

 

As you go down Group 1, the elements become more reactive as the atomic number increases

34

What is observed in the reaction of lithium with water? What colour does the universal indicator turn?

the lithium moves slwowly around rge surface, fizzing, until it disappears

the indicator turns from neutral to purple because the water has become alkaline

35

What is observed in the reaction of sodium with water? What colour does the universal indicator turn?

sodium fizzed rapidly and moves quickly around the surface, it may ignite

it reacts faster than lithium

the indicator turns from neutral to purple because the water has become alkaline

36

What is observed in the reaction of potassium with water? What colour does the universal indicator turn?

potassium reacts vigorously, burns with a lilac flame - and sometimes explodes

potassium reacts faster than lithium and sodium

the indicator turns from neutral to purple because the water has become alkaline

37

Group 1 metals have ... electron on their outer shell

As you go down Group 1, the outermost electron is in a shell that is closer/further from the nucleus. What does this mean?

What charge are their ions?

Group 1 metals have oneelectron on their outer shell

As you go down Group 1, the outermost electron is in a shell that is further from the nucleus

This means that as the atom gets bigger as you go down the group, the attraction between the outermost electron and the nucleus becomes loess and the outer electron is lost more easily, and the metals are move reactive

Their ions are +1 charged

38

What is Group 7? What elements are in it?

halogens

(in order):

fluorine

chlorine

bromine

iodine

astatine

 

39

The halogens are monatomic/diatomic

The halogens are diatomic

40

What state of matter and colour is flourine?

gas

yellow

41

What state of matter and colour is chlorine?

gas

green

42

What state of matter and colour is bromine?

liquid

dark red liquid - red/brown vapour

43

What state of matter and colour is iodine?

solid

dark grey solid - purple vapour

44

The halogens are good/poor conductors of heat and electricity

When they are solid, their crystals will/will not be brittle

The halogens are poor conductors of heat and electricity

When they are solid, their crystals will be brittle

45

As the atomic number of the halogens increased, the elements have a lighter/darker colour and a lower/higher boiling point

As the atomic number of the halogens increased, the elements have a darker colour and a higher boiling point

46

As you go up Group 7, the reactivity increases/decreases . Why?

As you go up Group 7, the reactivity increases

this is because the shell with the missing electron is nearer to the nucleus, so the attraction to to positive nucleus is greater

 

47

What do the halogens react with hydrogen to form?

hydrogen halides

48

What three things are hydrogen halides? How are they bonded?

steamy, acidic, poisonous gases

they are bonded covalently

49

Are hydrogen halides soluble in water? What do they react with water to produce?

hydrogen halides are very soluble in water

they react with water to produce solutions of acids, such as HCl (a solution of hydrogen chloride in water)

50

What state of matter is HCl at room temperature?

gas

51

What does hydrogen chloride do in water? Is this an alkaline or acidic solution? Why?

hydrogen chloride dissociates in water

the Hcl molecules split into H+ ions and Clions - this process is called dissociation

this is an acidic solution because it contains H+

52

When hydrochloric acid solution in water is tested with blue litmus paper, what colour does the paper turn?

blue to pink

53

What does hydrogen chloride do in methy;benzene? Is this an acidic solution? Why?

HCl doesn't dissociate into H+ and Cl- ions when disolved in organic solvents like methylbenzene

this means there are no H+ ions so produced so it is not acidic

54

When hydrogen chloride solution in methylbenzene is tested with blue litmus paper, what colour does the paper turn? What happens if there is any moisture on the paper or in the bottle

the blue litmus paper stays blue

but if there is any moisture on the paper or in the bottle then the HCl can dissociate and it will behave like an acid again

55

What do halogens form with metals?

ionic salts

56

What do halogens form with non-metals?

covalent compounds

57

Halogens are oxidising/reducing agents with oxidising/reducing ability decreasing down the Group

Halogens are oxidising agents with oxidising ability decreasing down the Group

58

What are two uses of halogens in general? What is a use of chlorine? What is a use of iodine?

toothpaste

non-stick coating on drying pans

chlrine kills bacteria - used in bleach and swimming pools

iodine is used as an antiseptic to prevent cuts from being infected

59

Transition metals are typically metallic/non-metallic elements

They are good/poor conductors of heat and electricity

They are workable/not workablestrong/weak, and mostly with high/low densities

With the exception of liquid mercury, Hg, they have high/low melting points

(they are the orange)

Transition metals are typically metallic elements

They are good conductors of heat and electricity

They are workable, strong, and mostly with high densities

With the exception of liquid mercury, Hg, they have high melting points

60

Transition metals are much more/less reactive than the metals in Group 1 and 2, so they do/don't react as rapidly with air or water

(they are the orange)

Transition metals are much less reactive than the metals in Group 1 and 2, so they don't react as rapidly with air or water

61

Transition metals form coloured/colourless compounds

Transition metals form coloured ​compounds

62

What are the uses of transition metals?

they are often useful catalsysts:

iron in the manufacture of ammonia (Haber process)

vanadium (V) oxide in the manufacture of sulphuric acid (Contact process)

63

More reactitve halogens ... less reactive halogens - they take part in ... reaction

More reactitve halogens displacement less reactive halogens - they take part in displacement reaction

64

What happens in the reaction of chlorine water, Cl2 (aq) , with potassium chloride solution, KCl (aq)? Why?

no reaction

chloride cannot displace chlorine

65

What happens in the reaction of chlorine water, Cl2 (aq) , with potassium bromide solution, KBr (aq)? Why?

orange solution (Br2) is formed

the chlorine displaced the bromide because it is more reactive than bromide

66

What happens in the reaction of chlorine water, Cl2 (aq) , with potassium bromide solution, KI (aq)? Why?

brown solution (I2) is formed

chlorine displaces the iodide because it is more reactive than iodide

67

What happens in the reaction of chlorine water, Br2 (aq) , with potassium bromide solution, KCl (aq)? Why?

no reaction

bromine cannot displace chloride because chloride is more reactive than bromine

68

What happens in the reaction of chlorine water, Br2 (aq) , with potassium bromide solution, KBr (aq)? Why?

no reaction

bromine cannot displace bromide

69

What happens in the reaction of chlorine water, Br2 (aq) , with potassium bromide solution, KI (aq)? Why?

brown solution (I2) is formed

bromine displaces the iodide because it is more reactive than iodide

70

What happens in the reaction of iodine water, I2 (aq) , with potassium chloride solution, potassium bromide solution and potassium iodide?

no reaction

chloride and bromide are more reactive than iodine so the iodine cannot displace them

iodine cannot displace iodide

71

What is the equation for the reaction of chlorine water with potassium iodide solution? What type of reaction is this? What is happening to the electrons in this reaction?

this is a displacement reaction:

Cl2 (aq) + 2Kl (aq) → I2 (aq) + 2KCl (aq)

the electrons are passed from the iodine to the chlorine

each chlorine atom in the Cl2 molecule gains an electron from two negative Cl- ions

Two iodide ions lose an electron each and them form a neutral Imolecule

chlorine is reduced and iodine is oxidised

 

72

What is the equation for a the reaction of a metal with dilute?

The more reactive the metal, the faster/slower the reaction will go - very reactive metals (e.g. sodium) react ...

What is the speed of reaction indicated by?

metal + dilute acid → salt + hydrogen

The more reactive the metal, the faster the reaction will go - very reactive metals (e.g. sodium) react explosively

the speed of reaction is indicated by the rate at which the bubbles of hydrogen are given off

73

How does magnesium react with cold dilute acids?

magnesium reacts vigorously with cold dilute acids and produces loads of bubbles

74

How does aluminium react with cold dilute acids? Why? How does aluminium react with warm dilute acids?

aluminium doesn't react much with cold dilute acids because it has a protective aluminium oxide layer

but, it reacts vigorously with warm dilute acids and produces a lot of bubbles

75

How do sinz and iron react with cold dilute acids? What happens if you heat them up?

both zinc and iron react slowly with dilute acids but more strongly if you heat them up

76

What is the equation of a metal reacting with steam?

metal + steam → metal oxide + hydrogen

77

As you go down the reactivity series, the reactions with water become more/less vigorous

As you go down the reactivity series, the reactions with water become less ​vigorous

78

Hydrochloric acid will always produce ... salts

Sulphuric acid will always produce ... salts

Hydrochloric acid will always produce chloride salts (e.g. magnesium chloride)

Sulphuric acid will always produce sulphate salts (e.g. magnesium sulphate)

79

What is the equation for the reaction of a metal reacting with water?

metal + water → metal hydroxide + hydrogen

80

Very reactive metals, like potassium, sodium, lithium and calcium, will react vigorously with ...

Less reactive metals, like magnesium, zinc and iron, won't react much with ... but they will react with ...

Copper won't react with either ... or ...

Very reactive metals, like potassium, sodium, lithium and calcium, will react vigorously with water

Less reactive metals, like magnesium, zinc and iron, won't react much with water but they will react with steam

Copper won't react with either water or steam

81

What is the order of the reactivity series?

82

More reactive metals will ... a less reactve metal from its oxide. Why?

More reactive metals will displace a less reactve metal from its oxide

this is because it will bond more strongly to the oxygen

83

What is the word and symbol equation for the reaction of iron oxide with aluminium?

iron oxide + aluminium → aluminium oxide + iron

Fe2O3 + 2Al → Al2O3 + 2Fe

84

More reactive metals will ... less reactive metals in a metal salt (such as sopper sulphate, zinc chloride and sodium chloride)

More reactive metals will displace less reactive metals in a metal salt (such as sopper sulphate, zinc chloride and sodium chloride)

85

What is the word and symbol equation for reaction of copper sulphate with iron?

copper sulphate + iron → iron sulphate + copper

CuSO4 + Fe → FeSO4 + Cu

86

What happens if a piece of silver metal is put into a solution of copper sulphate? Why?

nothing happens

this is because the more reactive metal (copper) is already in the salt

87

What are three uses of iron and what property does this depend on?

iron is a strong metal

it is used for building construction, car manufacture and wrought iton garden furniture

88

How is iron galvanised?

a coating of zin is sprayed onto the object

89

How do you prevent rusting on ship's hulls or underground iron pipes?

sacrificial protection: big blocks of zinc can be bolted to the iron

90

How do you prevent rusting on bike chains?

barrier method: oiling/greasing

this is used when moving parts are involved

91

How do you prevent rusting on big and small structures alike?

barrier method: painting/coating with plastic

can be decorative too

92

What is the atmosphere made up of (percentages)?

78% nitrogen

21% oxygen

nearly 1% argon

0.04% carbon dioxide

there can also be a lot of water vapour too

93

What two ways can you investigate the proportion of oxygen in the atmosphere?

using copper

using iron or phosphorus

94

How do you investigate the proportion of oxygen in the atmosphere by using copper? What is the chemical equation for this reaction?

1. when it's heated, copper reacts with oxygen in the air to make coppe (II) oxide - so the reaction uses up oxygen

2. if you heat an excess of copper in a tube and pass air over it using two syringes, you can use the markers on the syringe to tell how much oxygen has been used up

3. if you start with 100cm3 of air, you'll end up with 80cm3 when the reaction is finished and the air has cooled. If 20cm3 air has gone then around 20% of the air must be oxyegn

you need to make sure the system is sealed so no extra air can get in and out

chemical equation:

2Cu + O2 → 2CuO

 

95

How do you investigate the proportion of oxygen in the atmosphere by using iron or phosphorus?

1. Iron reacts with oxygen in the air to form rust - so iron will remove oxygen from the air

2. To do this experiment, first soak some iron wool in acetic acid (the acid will catalyse the reaction). Then push the wool into a test tube, put your thumb over the end and ivert the tube into a beaker of water

3. Over time, the level of the water in the test tube will rise - this is because iron reacts with oxygen in the air to make iron oxide. The water rises to fill the space the oxygen took up

4. To work out the percentage of air that is oxygen you need to mark the starting and finishing position of the water

5. Then, fill the tube up to each mark with water and pour the contents into a measuring cylinder to find out the volume of air at the start and the end

6. Using the difference between the start and end volumes to work out the percentage of the starting volume that has been used up - it should be about 20%

7. You can do a similar experiment with white phosphorus. White phosphorus smoulders in air to produce phosphorus oxide. Calculate the amount of oxygen in the air in the same was as for iron

96

How do you make oxygen, O2, in the lab?

1. It is made using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)

2. The hydrogen peroxide will decompose into water and oxygen:

2H2O2 (aq) → 2H2O (l) + O2 (g)

3. this decomposition is really slwo but the rate of reaction can be increased with maganese (IV) oxide catalyst - this speeds up the reaction without being used up itself

4. you can collect the oxygen that's produced over water or by using a gas syringe

97

When making oxygen, O2, in the lab, how do you collect the oxygen over water?

you can use a delivery tube to bubble the gas into an upsdie down measuring cylinder or gas jar filled with water

98

When making oxygen, O2, in the lab, how do you collect the oxygen by using a gas syringe?

you can use a gas syringe to collect pretty much any gas, including oxygen

99

Oxides can have either ... or ... character

Oxides can have either acidic or basic character

100

Magnesium burns with a ... flame in air and ... that is formed is magnesium oxide

The equation for this is: ...

Magnesium oxide is slightly ... when it's dissolved in water

 

Magnesium burns with a bright white flame in air and white powder that is formed is magnesium oxide

The equation for this is: 2Mg (s) + O2 (g) → 2MgO (s)

Magnesium oxide is slightly alkaline when it's dissolved in water

101

Carbon will burn in air if it's ...

It has an ... flame and it produces ...

The equation for this is: ...

Carbon dioxide is slightly ... when it's dissolved in water

Carbon will burn in air if it's very strongly heated

It has an orangey/yellowy flame and it produces carbon dioxide

The equation for this is: C (s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g)

Carbon dioxide is slightly acidic when it's dissolved in water

102

Sulphur burns in air or oxygen with a ... flame and produces ...

The equation for this is: ...

Sulphur dioxide is ... when it's dissolved in water

Sulphur burns in air or oxygen with a pale blue flame and produces sulphur dioxide

The equation for this is: S (s) + O2 (g) → SO2 (g)

Sulphur dioxide is acidic when it's dissolved in water

103

How can you collect gases in a test tube?

upward/ downward delivery

1. the delivery tube is fed directly into a test tube either upwards of downwards

2. use upward  delivery to collect 'lighter than air' gases (e.g. H2)

3. use downward delivery to collect 'heavier than air' gases (e.g. CO2, Cl2)

104

What two ways can you produce carbon dioxide?

reacting dilute hydrochloric acid with calcium carbonate

thermal decomposition of metal carbonates

105

How do you produce carbon dioxide by reacting dilute hydrochloric acid with calcium carbonate?

1. the calcium carbonate (marble chips) is put in the bottom of a sflask and dilute hydrochloric acid is added

2. dilute HCl reacts with the calcium carbonate to produce calcium chloride, water and carbon dioxide gas:

hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate → calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide

2HCl (aq) + CaCO3 (s) → CaCl2 (aq) + H2(l) + CO2 (g)

3. the carbon dioxide gas is collected in a gas syringe or using downward delivery

 

106

How do you produce carbon dioxide by the thermal decomposition of metal carbonates?

1. heat a metal carbonate (thermal decomposition)

2. copper (II) carbonate is a green powder that will easily decompose to form carbon dioxide and copper (II) ocide when you heat it:

copper (II) carbonate → copper oxide + carbon dioxide

CuCO3 (s) → CuO (s) + CO2 (g)

5. to do this experiment, heat copper (II) carbonate then collect the gas that's given off using the downward delivery method

107

What is thermal decomposition?

when a substance breaks down into simpler substances when heates

108

What are two uses of carbon dioxide?

fizzy drinks

fire extinguishers

109

Expalin the role of carbon dioxide in fizzy drinks

CO2 is used in carbonated drinks to make them fiz

CO2 is slightly soluble in water and dissolves into the drinks when under pressure - this produces a slightly acidic solution due to the formation of carbonic acid:

carbon dioxide + water → carbonic acid

CO2 (g) + H2(l) → H2CO3 (aq)

when you open the bottle the bubb;es are the CO2 excaping - if you leave the drink out long enough it will go flat because all the CO2 escapes

110

Expalin the role of carbon dioxide in fire extinguishers

carbon dioixide is used in fire extinguishers

CO2 is more dense than air - so its sinks onto the flame sand stops the oxygen the fire needs getting to it

carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are used when water extinguishers aren't safe, for example when putting out electrical fires

111

The temperature of the Earth is a balance between ... and ...

The temperature of the Earth is a balance between the heat it gets from the sun and the heat it radiates back out into space

112

Gases in the atmosphere such as (name three) ... naturally act like ...

They are often called '...'

What do they do?

Gases in the atmosphere like carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour naturally act like an insulating layer

They are often called 'greenhouse gases'

They absorb most of the heat that would normallly be radiated out into space, and re-radiate it in all directions - inclusing back towards the earth

113

... activity affects the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere - examples include:

1. ...

2. ...

human activity affects the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere - examples include:

1. deforestation: fewer tress means less COis removed from the atmosphere via photosynthesis

2. burning fossil fuels: carbon that was 'locked up' in these fuels is being released as CO2

114

The concentration of carbon dioxide over the last 200 years has increased/decreased . Why?

The concentration of carbon dioxide over the last 200 years has increased

CO2 is being released into the air faster than it's being removed

 

115

What is the increase in carbon dioxide linked to?

climate change which causes:

the average temperature of the Earth is increasing (global warming)

changing rainfall patterns

severe flooding due to the polar ice caps melting and sea level rise