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Flashcards in chemoferapy Deck (15):
1

what are some treatment options for cancer?

surgery
radiotherapy
chemotherapy

2

what are the two routes available for delivery of chemotherapy?

oral
IV

3

what are the aims of chemotherapy?

improved survival
halting the progression of the cancer
improving quality of life

4

what are the stages of mitosis?

prophase
metaphase
anaphase
telophase

5

what are the 4 classes of cytotoxic agents used in chemotherapy?

alkylating agents
anti-metabolites
mitotic inhibitors
antibiotics

6

what are some examples of alkylating agents?

busulfan
carmustine
chlorambucil
cisplatin
cyclophosamide
ifosfamide
melphalan

7

what are some examples of anti metabolites?

cytosine
arabinoside
floxuridine
fluorouracil
mercaptopurine
methotrexate

8

what are some examples of mitotic inhibitors?

etoposide
teniposide
vinblastine
vincristine
vindesine

9

what are some antimitotic antibiotics?

bleomycin
dactinomycin
daunorubicin
doxorubicin
mitomycin c
mitoxantrone
plicamycin

10

what is the mechanism of action of alkylating agents?

alkyl group allows covalent bonds with other molecules
DNA helix cross links intra and interstrand
the agent then attaches to free guanines on separated DNA strands
strands are unable to act as templates for new DNA formation

11

what is the mechanism of action of antimetabolites?

incorporation into new nuclear material
bind irreversibly with vital enzymes to inhibit cell division

12

what is the mechanism of action of vinca alkaloids?

bind to tubuli and block microtubule formation and spindle formation

13

what is the mechanism of action of antimitotic antibiotics?

intercalate and inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis
membrane binding and increase permeability to various ions
free radicals disrupt DNA chain and prevent mitosis'

14

what are the principles underlying combination chemotherapy?

Different mechanism of action:
-synergistic or at least additive
-reduces risk of developing resistance

dissimilar toxicity profile:
- i.e. not 2 neurotoxic agents

15

what are some side effects of chemotherapy?

nausea
vomiting
alopecia
diarrhoea
renal failure