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Y3 - CLASP anatomy and radiology > Chest > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chest Deck (47)
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1

different X-ray densities, colour of air, fat, soft tissue/muscle, bone and metal?

air = black
fat = grey
soft tissue/muscle = grey/white
bone = white
metal = bright white

2

how do you consider if an x-ray is technically adequate?

-tions
projection
inspiration
rotation
penetration

3

how is projection measured on a PA chest X-ray?

CTR
ratio of maximal horizontal cardiac diameter to maximal horizontal thoracic diameter
should be <0.5 (50%)

4

why is CTR not measured on AP X-rays?

objects nearer appear artificially enlarged

5

how do you tell if a CXR is adequately inspired?

anterior ends of at least 6 ribs should be visible

6

how do you tell if a CXR is correctly centred? (rotation)

the medial ends of the clavicles should be equidistant from the spinous processes of the upper thoracic vertebrae

7

which borders should all be clearly visible?

mediastinal borders

8

what are the pulmonary hila?

the junctions between the heart and lungs, where the pulmonary arteries and bronchi enter and the pulmonary veins exit the lungs

9

which hilum is normally higher?

left

10

which diaphragm is normally higher?

right by 1.5cm

11

how are the lungs divided?

upper, middle and lower zones

12

what are the review areas?

lung apices
behind the heart
below the diaphragm
bones and soft tissues

13

lung apices

masses (e.g. Pancoast tumour)
pneumothorax

14

behind the heart

consolidation
masses
hiatus hernia

15

below the diaphragm

free gas
lines and tubes
gastric distension
bowel obstruction

16

bones and soft tissues

fractures
masses
mastectomy
subcutaneous emphysema
evidence of previous surgery

17

why does lobar collapse occur

obstruction of a lobar bronchus

18

causes of bronchial obstruction

aspirated foodstuff
tumours
mucus impaction

19

what is 'veil like opacity'

describes diffuse opacification caused by lobe collapse

20

what infection would cause the left heart border to be obscured?

lingula

21

what would cause loss of clarity of the right heart border but preservation of the right hemidiaphragm?

right middle lobe consolidation

22

what would cause loss of clarity of the left upper mediastinum?

left upper lobe consolidation

23

key criteria in air bronchogram

1. The bronchus must contain air
2. The surrounding lung must not

24

pleural effusion erect CXR

dense pleural fluid is seen to collect at the lung bases and often forms the curved appearance of a ‘meniscus’ at the lung edges, blunting the costophrenic angles

25

small pneumothorax

a dark crescent without lung markings bounded medially by the lung edge

26

where is a pneumothorax often?

lung apex

27

large pneumothorax

the lung edge and the black air filled pleural space with no lung markings

28

tension pneumothorax

large air filled pleural space
displaces the mediastinum
depresses the diaphragm collapsed lung can be squashed against the heart

29

heart failure mnemonic

A - alveolar oedema
B - Kerley B lines
C - cardiomegaly
D - dilated upper lobe vessels
E - pleural effusion

30

normal ET tube placement

tip 5 cm above carina
width 2/3 tracheal diameter
cuff should not expand the trachea