Child Development: Infancy to 2 years Flashcards Preview

Med 2 - Week 39 > Child Development: Infancy to 2 years > Flashcards

Flashcards in Child Development: Infancy to 2 years Deck (81)
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1

What is neural plasticity?

The ability of the brain to be shaped by environmental stimuli

2

When does myelination occur? In what order?

Begins at birth, starting with the spinal cord and brain stem. Cortex myelination begins around 7-8 months and continues until young adulthood.

3

What are the 5 domains of development?

1. Gross motor: movements with large muscle groups
2. Fine motor: hands and smaller muscles, ADLs
3. Speech/Language: receptive and expressive communication, verbal/non-verbal
4. Cognitive: reasoning, memory, problem solving, academics
5. Social/Emotional: attachment, self-regulation, interactions with others

4

What are some examples of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that can influence development?

Intrinsic: temperament, state of wellness/illness, genetics

Extrinsic: personality/parenting style of caregivers, nutrition, SES (impacting time + money), family stress, culture

5

What level of gross motor ability are neonates born with?

1. high flexor tone
2. alternating movements of symmetric flexion and extension
3. very limited ability to initiate purposeful movements

6

What is the asymmetric tonic neck reflex? When does it disappear?

when an infant moves their head to one side, the arm is extended on the same side of the face and the other arm is flexed.

prevents them from rolling from back to front, bringing hands midline or reaching for objects

Disappears by 4-6 months

7

What is the moro reflex? How is it engaged and when does it disappear?

Occurs in response to loud noises or sudden drop in level of head.

Extension followed by abduction of upper extremities with hands open, followed by upper extremity flexion

Interferes with head control/sitting equilibrium

Disappears by 4 months

8

What are postural reactions and when do they develop?

Develop in early infancy and are required to maintain normal head and body relationships in space for motor development.

ex: protective extension
- allows infants to catch themselves when falling
- develop around 6-9 months when infants move from sitting to hands/knees

9

What is the main goal of gross motor development in the first year of life?

Develop skills that allow for independent movement and use of hands for exploration of environment

10

GM milestone: 1 month

chin up when prone, turns head supine

11

GM milestone: 2 months

lifts chest of table when prone

12

GM milestone: 3 months

props up on forearms when prone

13

GM milestone: 4 months

rolls from front to back, no head lag when pulled to sit

14

GM milestone: 5 months

rolls from back to front

15

GM milestone: 6 months

sits without support

16

GM milestone: 8 months

crawling

17

GM milestone: 9 months

pulls themselves to a stand

18

GM milestone: 10 months

"cruising"

19

GM milestone: 12 months

first steps

20

What are the main features of GM development in the second year of life?

mainly refinements in balance, coordination, speed and strength

21

GM milestone: 14 months

walking well

22

GM milestone: 15 months

runs with stiff legs, crawls up stairs

23

GM milestone: 16 months

walks up stairs with one hand held

24

GM milestone: 18 months

runs well, can creep down stairs

25

GM milestone: 20 months

walks down stairs with one hand held, squats during play

26

GM milestone: 22 months

walks up stairs holding a rail, not alternating feet

27

GM milestone: 24 months

- walks down stairs holding rail, not alternating feet
- kicks ball, throws overhand, jumps with 2 feet

28

GM milestone: 30 months

walks up stairs with railing, alternating feet

29

FM milestone: birth

primitive grasp reflex

30

FM milestone: 2 months

hold hands together