Flashcards in Child Development: Infancy to 2 years Deck (81)
What is neural plasticity?
The ability of the brain to be shaped by environmental stimuli
When does myelination occur? In what order?
Begins at birth, starting with the spinal cord and brain stem. Cortex myelination begins around 7-8 months and continues until young adulthood.
What are the 5 domains of development?
1. Gross motor: movements with large muscle groups
2. Fine motor: hands and smaller muscles, ADLs
3. Speech/Language: receptive and expressive communication, verbal/non-verbal
4. Cognitive: reasoning, memory, problem solving, academics
5. Social/Emotional: attachment, self-regulation, interactions with others
What are some examples of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that can influence development?
Intrinsic: temperament, state of wellness/illness, genetics
Extrinsic: personality/parenting style of caregivers, nutrition, SES (impacting time + money), family stress, culture
What level of gross motor ability are neonates born with?
1. high flexor tone
2. alternating movements of symmetric flexion and extension
3. very limited ability to initiate purposeful movements
What is the asymmetric tonic neck reflex? When does it disappear?
when an infant moves their head to one side, the arm is extended on the same side of the face and the other arm is flexed.
prevents them from rolling from back to front, bringing hands midline or reaching for objects
Disappears by 4-6 months
What is the moro reflex? How is it engaged and when does it disappear?
Occurs in response to loud noises or sudden drop in level of head.
Extension followed by abduction of upper extremities with hands open, followed by upper extremity flexion
Interferes with head control/sitting equilibrium
Disappears by 4 months
What are postural reactions and when do they develop?
Develop in early infancy and are required to maintain normal head and body relationships in space for motor development.
ex: protective extension
- allows infants to catch themselves when falling
- develop around 6-9 months when infants move from sitting to hands/knees
What is the main goal of gross motor development in the first year of life?
Develop skills that allow for independent movement and use of hands for exploration of environment
GM milestone: 1 month
chin up when prone, turns head supine
GM milestone: 2 months
lifts chest of table when prone
GM milestone: 3 months
props up on forearms when prone
GM milestone: 4 months
rolls from front to back, no head lag when pulled to sit
GM milestone: 5 months
rolls from back to front
GM milestone: 6 months
sits without support
GM milestone: 8 months
GM milestone: 9 months
pulls themselves to a stand
GM milestone: 10 months
GM milestone: 12 months
What are the main features of GM development in the second year of life?
mainly refinements in balance, coordination, speed and strength
GM milestone: 14 months
GM milestone: 15 months
runs with stiff legs, crawls up stairs
GM milestone: 16 months
walks up stairs with one hand held
GM milestone: 18 months
runs well, can creep down stairs
GM milestone: 20 months
walks down stairs with one hand held, squats during play
GM milestone: 22 months
walks up stairs holding a rail, not alternating feet
GM milestone: 24 months
- walks down stairs holding rail, not alternating feet
- kicks ball, throws overhand, jumps with 2 feet
GM milestone: 30 months
walks up stairs with railing, alternating feet
FM milestone: birth
primitive grasp reflex