Flashcards in Childhood Deck (19)
'childhood is disappearing at a dazzling speed'
Children have completely different rights and duties from adults, these are regulated and protected by law
A cult of childhood developed after industrialisation
Society has a need for better-educated citizens and lower infant mortality rates, therefore, school leaving ages have increased and child protection has improved
Theories of child development changed in the 19th Century. People began to realise that children needed protection due to the growing medical interest in child development
There is an 'age patriarchy' in which adults maintain authority over children. This is achieved by using enforced dependency through the protection from paid employment and legal controls, for example
Hockey and James
Childhood is a stage that most children wish to escape
Statham and Owens
Black children or dual-heritage children are more likely to end up in care than white or asian children
Asian families are stricter on their daughters than sons
Hillman et al
Studied children age 7 - 15 and found that parents tended to give boys more freedom to cross roads, go out after dark etc than girls
Girls perform more household chores than boys, especially in lone-parents families
The construction of childhood varies across different historical and cultural societies
Children growing up in the countryside in Bolivia were given responsibilities and work to perform at the age of 5
Sudanese children have far more freedom to explore and travel around their local area than children in Western societies
Humanitarian and welfare work is often based on the belief that Western childhood is the 'correct childhood'
The 20th Century was focused on the 'futurity' of the child - children symbolise the future
Children are now experiencing a 'toxic childhood,' their lives are more violent, stressful and sexually active. This leads to increased teenage pregnancies, obesity, self-harm and addiction to alcohol and drugs. She also argued that children's development has been damaged by the increasing speed of technological advancement.
The paradox of childhood is one of dependence and independence at the same time