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Flashcards in Children ATI Deck (62):
1

What kind of precautions to take with measles ? (Rubeola)

How long?

When it can be transferred ?

Airborne

Through out duration

4 days before to 5 days after rash

2

N95 mask, client wears surgical mask when transported, w/ neg airflow room

How long for Tb / varicella

Tb , reservoir (resp secretions) , varicella

Until 3 negative cultures - Tb

Until lesions crust over- varicella

3

Point of maximal impulse on an infant

Apical - lower left side 4th intercostal

4

S/s of rubeola /measles

Fever, conjunctivitis, cough, runny nose, red eyes, sore throat, rash, tiny white spots, reddish brown rash on face

5

Motor skills of a six month old

Rolls from back to stomach

Can hold a bottle

First teeth usually develop

Separation anxiety begins

Fear of strangers begin

Back fontanel closes by 6-8m

Average wt of a 6m infant is 16lbs

Growth spurt after 6m

6

Immunizations at six months

Dtap, IPV, PCV, hib , RV, HIB, hepB

7

Immunizations at birth

Hep b

8

Immunizations at two months

DTap , RV, IPV , Hib, pcv, hepB

9

Immunizations at four months

DTap, rv, IPV, hib, pcv

10

Breastfeeding provides a complete diet for infants till how old?

First 6 months

11

When are solid foods introduced?

4-6 months

12

What indicates sexual abuse

STD

UTI

Bruises on genitals

Hard to walk

Regressive behavior

Withdrawal

Personality changes

Blood or torn underwear

Unusual body odor

13

Higher risk of sexual abuse if?

Multiple injuries at diff stages of healing

Young parents ,

Partner not related to child

Low income

Lack of education

Substance abuse

Hx of abuse

No support systems

Child is one year old or younger / female

Premature infants

Divorce

Stressed/ unemployed

Crowded housing conditions

14

Higher risk for suicide if?

Female 20-30s

Psychiatric Illness/mood disorder

Uses barbiturates

Divorced or widowed

Doctors , lawyers, law enforcement , dentists

Due to Burn out, stress, guilt

Sexual or physical abuse

15

Adverse side effects of SSRIs

Serotonin syndrome, neuroleptic malignant syndrom, suicidal thoughts

16

Cervical traction for fractures

(Bars and circle the Head, provider inside screws into the child outter skull)

Wrench to release rods Incase cpr is needed

Move as a unit

Inspect pins regularly

Monitor integrity of skin below vest

Use stool softeners

Hydrate

Watch for infection

No powder under vest

Notify social services is suspected abuse

Neurovascular checks

Orthopedic specialist with fracture care in children

17

Care of children with heart failure

Give fluids, (2L) potassium , electrolytes

Feed q 3 hours

Increase calories/formula

Encourage moms who are breast feeding to alternate feedings w density formula

Decrease sodium to 2k mg /day or less

Increase protein

Small frequent meals and easy to chew foods

High potassium foods

Take daily WT

18

High potassium foods

Bran cereals , potatoes , tomato’s , bananas , melons , oj

19

B12 iron deficiency anemia -

Who is at risk ?

What foods to eat?

What vitamin helps absorb iron ?

Alcohol use, malabsorption syndrome, gastrectomy, improper iron intake

Meat,Fish, tofu, peas, beans, whole grains, dried fruit, cereal, formula

Vitamin C

20

What is the leading cause of accidental poisoning in small children ?

Iron overdose

21

Nasogastric intubation and external feeding s

NI- Removal of gases/stomach contents to relieve distention, nausea, vomiting

Lavage-Washing out the stomach treats bleeding, ingestion, poison, gastric dilation

Compression - Internal balloon to apply pressure to prevent hemorrhage

If client vomits - clear airway, comfort , and confirm placement with x Ray

External feedings-

Can not consume food orally

For meeting specific nutrition needs

Aspirate for residual volume

Flush 30mL tap water

22

Beta 2 adrenergic agonist?

Side effects of albuterol?

Ipratropen?

Teachings ?

SABA - used for acute exacerbations

Tremors , tachycardia

Dry mouth

Suck on candy to help dry mouth , take before exercise or activity,

23

Giving rectal meds

Insert beyond rectal sphincters

Hold buttocks together for 5-10 min after

Half lengthwise

Atraumatic care (quickly and use distraction)

24

Insulin pumps with regular insulin ?

Short acting insulin (regular insulin) onset

Gives specific amount of insulin on regular basis

30 minutes

25

Levothroxine teaching?

Increases metabolic rate , protein synthesis ,cardiac output, renal profusion , oxygen use, body temperature, blood volume , growth process

Can Result in hyperthyroidism, a fib, fractures, bone loss

Monitor TSH levels

Do not take after MI or heart problems

Do not use with and I also removed, calcium and iron supplements

It can break down vit k

Report signs of bleeding or bruising

Full effect takes 6 to 8 weeks

Take 30 to 60 minutes before breakfast

Two finals, monitor signs and symptoms of heart problems

26

Serum sodium in a child-

130-150 meq

27

First signs of dehydration are

Increase thirst
Dry mucus membrane
Capillary refill is greater than 2 seconds
Weight loss 3-5%

28

Specific gravity
PH

1.005-1.025

4.6-8

29

Priority with open fracture- (compound )

Abcs , vitals, pain , neurological status , neurovascular status, supine position , remove jewelry , monitor urine , elevate limb, apply ice , proper alignment , rom , keep warm , alelgesics radiograph

30

What to check/report with fracture

Neurovascular-Numbness/ tingling

Warm not cool skin temp

Skin color distal to injury pigmentation

Cap refill with in 3 seconds

Pulse -Equal to unaffected side / strong

Before casting- observe skin area , clean, dry, pad bony prominences

Pain not relieved by medication or increased pain

Compartment syndrome signs

Infection , fever ,redness, inflammation

31

Infant with heart failure

Keep warm,

decrease activity,

frequent feedings and small meals q 3 hours for 30 min at a time ,

increase calories

Cool humidified O2
Mask nasal cannula

Suction as needed

Monitor O2 q 2-4 hours

32

Hyperthermia interventions

Cultures

Asses wbc , hematology test, electrolytes

Fluids

Rest

Minimize activity , cooking blanket

Antibiotics / antipyretics

Decrease shivering (blankets during chills)

Oral hygiene

Dry clothing/linens

Room temp at 70-80

33

Tonsillectomy interventions

Opioids / pain meds

Antibiotics

Place in position to help drainage

Elevate HOB

Check for bleeding (frequent swallowing, clearing throat, increase pulse, bright red, breathing/airway)

Ice collar

Sips of water

Encourage clear liquids after gag reflex comes back

Avoid red colored juice or milk based foods

34

Priority intervention for RSV? (Cold like symptoms rhinitis)

What to give?

What it can lead to?

First Maintain a clear airway and promote oxygen

Check lung sounds

Suction mouth and nose

Give fluids and pain reliever for fever and headache

Can lead to pneumonia and severe breathing problems in babies

35

Priority Finding for head trauma for a child

Personality changes

Lethargy

Irritability / agitation

Combative

Confusion

Vomiting

Seizures

Loss of consciousness

Increase liver enzymes and serum ammonia level

Coagulation times extended

Blurred vision, increased sleep , inability to follow simple commands , decrease in school work,

Buldging frontenal , high pitched cry , separation of cranial , poor feeding , sun setting sign , dissented scalp veins

36

Asthma interventions

Asses airway , resp rate, vitals, CBC , chest x Ray , ABGs , O2, Lung sounds , vaccinations , Saba - monitor for wt changes

37

Varicella zoster teaching?

Hand hygiene

Cover nose and mouth when coughing

Change and wash linens daily

If immunocompromised seek prompt medical care

Participate in decisions

Fever, fatigue , decrease in appetite , headache and rash that starts in center of trunk

38

Rsv expected finding

Fever
Cough
Increased breathing
Wheezing
Rales (cracking in lungs )
Runny nose (rhinitis)?
Decrease appetite
Sneezing
Irritability
Decreased activity
Hard to breath

39

Nephrotic syndrome - actions

Rest
Monitor I and o
Weigh diapers
Monitor urine for protein
Vitals
WT
Monitor edema
Abdominal girth daily
Pitting color
Texture of skin
Cough
Infection
Deep breathe
Hand hygiene
Antibiotic therapy
Salt restrictions
Repo often
Keep skin dry
Elevate body parts

40

Presidone -

Take with meals
Don’t stop suddenly
Dont stop suddenly
Eat foods high in potassium
Monitor serum electrolytes and I and o
Keep away from potential infection

41

Recommendations for acute diarrhea

Oral rehydration
Inform school
Stay home
Skin care
Avoid spread
Change bed linens and underwear daily
Clean toys and areas
Shower often
Avoid undercooked food
Hand hygiene
No sharing utensils
Clip nails
Thumb sucking no
Avoid fruit juices , carb sodas , gelatin , caffeine , broth, banana , rice, applesauce, toast (brat)
Monitor voids - give water, breast milk, lactose free formula
Monitor i&O and WT daily
Avoid rectal temp
IV fluids
Rotavirus immunization for - prevention
Avoid antibiotics

42

Set Water temp to what?

120 degrees

43

How long to keep infants in back seat rear facing in car seat?

Until two years old or height recommended by manufacturer

44

9 month old

Standing position
Crawls
Dominant hand evident
Knows object still exists when out of site
Knows word no
Obeys simple commands
Seasonal flu vaccination

45

3 month old

Raises head and shoulders off mattress with slight head lag

No more grasp reflex

Coping noises

Interest in environment

Turns head to sounds of rattle

Consenents ate added

Nocturnal sleep pattern

46

When does operational stage take place ?

Age 7-11 years old

Concept of conversation

47

Conventional academic learning what age?

5-6 years old

Able to see perspective of others

problem solve

48

Two year old care

Low fat milk

Finger foods

Regular meal times

Avoid desserts

Avoid grapes , nuts, hot dogs

Bite size foods

11-12 hours sleep

49

Immunization at birth

Hep b

50

2 month , 4, 6 month immunization

HepB
Rota virus
DTap
Hib
Polio (IPV)
Pcv13

51

When To give influenza vaccine

6m- yearly

52

10 year old vaccine

Tdap

53

12 year old vaccine

MMR
Varicella
HepA

54

11 year old vaccine

HPV
Meningococcal conjugate

55

DTap side effects

Hib side effects

Rv-

IPV

Mmr

Hep b

HPV

Fever of 105 or higher , seizures

Redness swelling temp of 101.0

Diarrhea vomiting

Tenderness

Local reaction , rash fever swollen neck , brain damage deaf

Varicella- seizures , pneumonia, decrease blood count , brain reactions

HepB - guillain barre syndrome

HPV- fainting

56

SIDS risk

Smoking
Side sleeping or prone
Premature
Fam hx
Poverty low apgar
Overheating
No pacifier
No immunizations up to date

57

UTI sign

Jaundice
Swelling in face
Increase pulse
Diaper rash
Seizure

58

Limit cholesterol to what

300 mg - 200 a day

59

Bone marrow biopsy is performed with what

Local anesthetics

60

Hematologic disorder signs

Bleeding gums are blood in stool, brittle spoon shaped fingernails, muscle weakness, heart murmur, tarry stool’s, anemia, pain, short of breath, and Pale mucous membranes, jaundice, cool to touch hands and feet, dizzy, headache

61

Sins of heart failure

Sweating, tachycardia, fatigue, pale, cool, week pulses, hypertension

62

A1c

6.5-8 is ok in children