Chp 7 Proactive Police Tech for 21st Century Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chp 7 Proactive Police Tech for 21st Century Deck (85):
1

***START***
A major problem for police managers in the next decades will be controlling and organizing ________. _________ must not drive police decisions. Police decisions need to be controlled by human police managers.

technology.

Technology

2

A major problem with Internet information is that there is simply __________. Another problem is identifying information sources that can be _______.

too much information for any human being to comprehend

trusted

3

When police went from walking a beat to patrolling in cars, the ________ drove policy. Police rode around in their patrol cars and were insulated from the public. It took a proactive use of __________ to move beyond the isolated officer in the patrol car.

technology

community policing

4

The ____________has once again resulted in technology controlling management policy. The enormous growth of service calls from _____ created a reaction- driven department over-whelmed by these service calls, from critical emergencies to trivial issues. The _______ police manager institutes a split force, prioritizes the responses to calls, and takes control of this unique communication system.

911 universal emergency phone number

911

proactive

5

As all institutions become more information driven, linking information access to _______ through computers becomes vital. This information has to be managed through proactive p_____,p______, and a______.

policy making

planning, packaging, and accessing.

6

Laptop and handheld computers in patrol vehicles become useful only when there is a _______ system in place to take advantage of them.

management

7

Secure _________ and organized _______ systems have to be in place before any computer is turned on. This means that the computer is only as good as the information put into the system and the intelligent use of the computer information system by human beings.

information channels and organized reporting systems

8

COMPUTER APPLICATIONS FOR INFORMATION MANAGEMENT: Before computerization, paper records got lost, created storage problems in terms of bulk, and were hard to handle. In order not to lose information, ________ was built into all police information systems. It took considerable time just to find things.

great redundancy

9

Information also has to be available in ______; in other words, police managers, supervisors, and line officers must be able to retrieve information from a number of sources in seconds.

real time

10

However, the computer is simply a tool, a machine, to process information. The computer does not create solutions, manage problems, or become a panacea for all solutions. Police managers manage and solve problems using the computer. Given this warning concerning the overreliance on computer technology, we also have the opposite end of the spectrum— that is, fear of computers. There are still police managers who cannot operate without hard copy ( a piece of paper) and who are fearful of using computers. These managers need to be _____ or ______.

retooled or retired.

11

COMPUTER APPLICATIONS FOR INFORMATION MANAGEMENT: It was so easy to get the data and the data output that police managers asked for everything without thinking through what they wanted. Managers need to use computers as tools and ask for only the output they need to ________. The ability to _______ is the basic talent needed for police administration.

get their jobs done in the most efficient manner

ask the right question

12

COMPUTER APPLICATIONS FOR INFORMATION MANAGEMENT: The ________ system, then, is a compendium of criminal data, crime statistics, and prosecution records, and it is the means by which an authorized department member can access and retrieve information.

records management

13

The following items comprise the management information system, which becomes the lifeblood of the department for accountability and deployment and is the living record in dealing with crime and public safety services:
1. P_____
2. B____
3. P_____
4. V____
5. A____
6. I_______
7. P______
8. T_______
9. S______of personnel.
10. C_______.

1. Payroll.
2. Budget.
3. Purchasing.
4. Vehicle maintenance.
5. Annual report.
6. Inventory.
7. Personnel.
8. Training records.
9. Scheduling of personnel.
10. Community relations.

14

Productivity can be increased throughout the department by using data processing, at least in the following areas:
C____ reports
F____
E____ control
F____
M____
W____ files
T_____
C_____
V_____ checks
B______
H______
D_____
M______
C______

Crime reports
Fingerprints
Evidence control
Found property
Modi operandi
Warrant files
Traffic tickets
Court appearances
Vacant house checks
Burglar alarms
Hazardous conditions
Daily bulletins
Mug- shot images
Computer crime mapping

15

_________ enhances calls for service from the public and the dispatching of police cars and personnel.

Computer- aided dispatch ( CAD)

16

CAD, combined with information laptop technology and computer mapping, can supply a great deal of data and services to officers in their patrol cars. Its uses in technologically smart departments include the following: 1. ________ identification
2. ______ planning
3. H_______ identification
4. Notification to _____ and _____ services
5. Improved officer safety through _____ and ______ identification.
6. ______ mapping for service call responses
7. Access to multiple __________.
8. Verification of all _____.
9. Improved ______ through the use of information technology
10. Rapid ________.

1. Victim identification
2. Patrol planning
3. Hot spot identification
4. Notification to emergency fire and medical services
5. Improved officer safety through driver and vehicle identification
6. Crime mapping for service call responses
7. Access to multiple data resources, including stolen cars, outstanding warrants, and other calls to the same location
8. Verification of all data
9. Improved service through the use of information technology
10. Rapid field report writing

17

Regardless of its range of services, the communications center is the “ front door” of a _______ system. It is also the information system for the organization because all informational resources are stored either in hard copy or on computers.

records management

18

CAD offers additional assistance in terms of hardware and software. Ideally, every time a call comes in or an incident is generated by a patrol unit, the event becomes an incident and is monitored by the _______ in the following ways:
• Assignment of a record number and _______.
• Monitoring of the ________.
• Checks of addresses or persons for _______.
• Checks for _______ on suspects
• Alerts to responding personnel regarding potential _______ or _______.

dispatcher

• Assignment of a record number and incident file
• Monitoring of the time spent on the incident
• Checks of addresses or persons for previous incidents
• Checks for warrants on suspects
• Alerts to responding personnel regarding potential violence or wanted persons

19

To assist field personnel, CAD systems also contain information on ______ and ______ patrol units need.

community and auxiliary resources patrol units need such as tow trucks, hazardous materials agencies, court locations and schedules, animal control personnel, and hospital phone numbers.

20

Ideally, CAD offers a number of factors for management purposes in terms of the following types of information:
• Type and date
• Name of complainant, suspect, or witness
• Classification of events according to ________ categories.
• Classification of each event according to ______ categories.
• _______ of the incident ( arrest, no action taken, under investigation, referred for further investigation/ open)
• Preparation of ________ for state and federal agencies

• Type and date
• Name of complainant, suspect, or witness
• Classification of events according to state crime- reporting categories
• Classification of each event according to department service categories
• Disposition of the incident ( arrest, no action taken, under investigation, referred for further investigation/ open)
• Preparation of special reports for state and federal agencies

21

A key feature of CAD is the use of ________ between the patrol units and the reduction of voice messages between the communications center and police personnel.

wireless transmissions

22

The trend in CAD is to reduce the amount of time spent on _________.

radio communications

23

Proactive Dispatch Benchmarks: CAD has been a useful tool for many years. Technologically sophisticated departments have used computer models to “ determine the most effective __________ with respect to call-for- service workload” ( Sweeny, to call-for-service workload”

deployment of personnel

24

Proactive Dispatch Benchmarks:
(In regard to Proactive use of dispatch) Thomas Sweeny states, “ Field testing of these various call management strategies in three cities by NIJ demonstrated that _____of all calls for service could be handled by an alternate approach rather than dispatch an officer for nonemergency calls.”

47%

25

Proactive Dispatch Benchmarks: The overwhelming number of callers had no problem with the use of the alternate approaches. Sweeny concludes that since 97 percent of alarm calls are false, these calls can be reduced by ____ percent by using the ______ developed by the National Burglar and Fire Alarm Association and “ proactive alarm oversight.”

50

Model Alarm Ordinance

26

Proactive Dispatch Benchmarks: Using ______ from the past, _________ of the present, and enforced ______ along with CAD, computer models, and spatially designed crime models, literally billions of dollars can be saved on patrol while giving our citizens more satisfying service.

directed patrol

intelligence- led policing

dispatch rules

27

_______________ provides the location and status of the vehicle, such as in pursuit, en route to scene, door open, and so on. It is more inclusive than an_______, which simply provides a vehicle’s location.

Automatic vehicle monitoring ( AVM)

automatic vehicle location ( AVL) system

28

Automatic Vehicle Locater Based on GPS: Location is provided by four devices: ( 1) a navigation ( hyperbolic) system that uses a radio location technique called _______, a system used by ships at sea; ( 2) a ______ system that uses radio location from three or more fixed sites; ( 3) a signpost/ proximity system that locates a vehicle through the use of fixed electronic signposts located throughout an area; and ( 4) a ________ system that uses computer-assisted instruments to track vehicles on a city map ( e. g., utilizing an advanced geocoding system).

Loran C

trilateration system

signpost/ proximity

dead- reckoning

29

The first AVM program, a signpost transmitter system, was installed in Monterey, California, in the early 1970s. The global positioning system ( GPS) , based on data from ____ satellites, provides the real-time location of every police vehicle and can be monitored on a digital map by management. With the GPS inside the police vehicle, directions to any location in North America are immediately available. This should shorten ______ and save ______.

12
response time

on gas

30

The GPS provides a _______ location of a vehicle for use in court cases and for internal affairs investigations. Vehicles can also be monitored over the Web, and a number of private agencies have sprung up to do this for companies that have a fleet of vehicles.

legal data- verified

31

The AVM systems are not without their critics. One reason... There is greater control and supervision of the ______ . ....if supervisors know the condition of all patrol cars and where the cars are at all times, they also have a pretty good idea of where the patrol officers are and what the status of the patrol officer is. This has great potential for increasing police ________ in terms of service to the public.

patrol force

productivity

32

The 911 system provides one phone number for calling all police agencies in a geographic area with one central ________. The 911 system has achieved a high degree of acceptance from the police and the public.

dispatch system

33

Generally, when this system (the 911 system) is not in existence, it is due to interference by _______ rather than technical difficulties, which have been and can be overcome.

local politics

34

A basic 911 system also provides a number of useful features:
( 1) automatic identification and display of the _______;
( 2) _______ selective routing, which allows routing of the 911 call to the appropriate ________;
( 3) ______ data, which give the police beat, fire alarm area, and ambulance zone of the location of the call;
( 4) _______ routing, which allows routing of calls to the appropriate operator in large law enforcement jurisdictions; and
( 5) automatic _________, which automatically displays the name of the person who owns the phone used for the call.

(1) calling number and address of the caller

(2) jurisdiction ; jurisdiction

(3) supplementary dispatch/ support

(4) internal selective

(5) registered name identification



35

Although the 911 system should be adopted by every jurisdiction, there are two major problems that need to be dealt with: ( 1) duplication of ______and ( 2) ______ that move through too many locations.

street names

mobile cell phones

36

Linked to 911 is the __________, whereby a number of law enforcement agencies cooperate in the creation of a common communication network. ______decreases operating costs, especially personnel and total equipment and installation costs. Jurisdictions are able to afford computer- assisted communication systems that would otherwise be out of reach of their budgets. Furthermore, with an _____, municipalities have also been able to afford technologies such as CAD.

regional communication system ( RCS)

RCS

RCS

37

Linked to 911 is ________, which allows police agencies to alert citizens of crimes in progress or impending weather emergencies. _______systems today can be programmed for specific areas as part of the 911 program publicly funded through phone charges. ________ in many regions is a “ work in progress” in terms of its accuracy and use during emergencies.

reverse 911

Reverse 911

Reverse 911

38

The next stage of 911 is called _______. As discussed by Reyes, ______ will be a compromise of digital networks that will increase data available to police through the use of mobile devices, text messages, videos, maps, and photos. Digital data will be able to be transmitted from citizens to public safety answering points and then to units in the field. The location of callers will be able to be pinpointed faster and responses for major incidents and disasters will be improved. As discussed by Reyes, ______ is now at the planning stage for many areas but it will be “ state of the art” for the coming decade.

Next Generation 911 or NG911

NG911

NG911

39

The ________ maintains a computerized filing system, including such information as wanted persons, stolen property, criminal history, and information on identifiable persons in relation to investigations of reported crimes. The ______ system is supported by the federal government and has a national advisory board made up of police administrators from all over the United States. This advisory board makes recommendations to the _________ in terms of NCIC policy.

National Crime Information Center ( NCIC)

NCIC

director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation ( FBI)

40

Since its creation in 1967, the NCIC has accomplished the following goals:
1. Enhancing the development of state, county, and metropolitan computerized _________, thereby making NCIC information more readily available to the officer on the street
2. Establishing uniformity of _________ for the exchange of criminal justice information.
3. Increasing the probability of _______ by providing law enforcement with timely and accurate information necessary to combat today’s highly mobile criminal
4. Improving the overall ________ rate

criminal justice information systems


coding standards


criminal detection

crime solution

41

NCIC:
With the number of mobile data terminals and agency users currently at 110,000, the system is currently involved in an upgrading program entitled ______. The purposes of the enhancements are the following:
1. Establish national distribution system for data sets stored by _______ instead of keeping a central database
2. Establish the _______, which will allow electronic transmittal and identification of _______.
3. Establish the __________ File, which will create files of people who are suspected terrorists or of interest to law enforcement officials

NCIC 2000

states

National Fingerprint File; fingerprints

Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Violent Felon


42

The Automated Regional Justice Information System ( ARJIS) operates in ________ and is similar to other state data networks.

California

43

ARJIS consists of nine components:
1. Arrests and juvenile contacts
2. Automated _______ document index
3. C_____
4. Crime a______
5. Crime c_____
6. F_____
7. Master ______ index
8. P_____
9. P______

1. Arrests and juvenile contacts
2. Automated worthless document index
3. Citations ( misdemeanor citations, traffic citations, traffic warnings, traffic accidents)
4. Crime analysis
5. Crime cases
6. Field interviews
7. Master operations index
8. Personnel
9. Property ( pawned/ wanted property)

44

ARJIS: In California, as in most states, additional information is accessible from standardized files, called the ___________, which contains six systems:
1. S______ system
2. Automated b______ system
3. W______ system
4. C______ system
5. Automated f_______ system
6. Automated p______ system

Criminal Justice Information System

1. Stolen vehicle system
2. Automated boat system
3. Wanted persons system
4. Criminal history system
5. Automated firearms system
6. Automated property system

45

Despite all these new technologies and data banks, there is still a need to have a system for r____, n_____, and i________ data sharing.

regional, national, and international

46

ARJIS: Each data bank is like a file cabinet— unless you have a key, you do not get in. ______ can help with this, but there needs to be ______ in place for access and sharing. Internal to the organization, there must be _______— from the chief to the patrol officers to the nonsworn staff persons— in terms of who has access to the information and who can make additions and deletions.

Intelligence- based policing

protocols

protocols

47

The Digitally Driven Police Department: Related to the new changes in computer technology is the transformation that has occurred in report writing and record keeping. Every police activity or crime incident demands a report of some form. The majority of police patrol reports written before _____ were handwritten; typewriters were reserved for detectives who needed ____ carbon copies for depositions and court papers.

1975

four

48

The Digitally Driven Police Department: Standardized forms were introduced at this time (1970's -1980's) to assist in data processing for _______and to reduce the narrative portion of the report. Writing reports and completing forms take time. Booking processes for the average misdemeanor take about ______ hours.

mainframe crime analysis

two

49

Today, officers write reports on small laptop computers located in the front seat of the patrol units or manual personal devices, such as iPads. Laptop computers with forms- based software and smart keys that conform to the _________ can make police more efficient.

police electronic forms

50

E- mail allows for electronic ______, as the sergeant can verify that an e- mail has been opened by an officer. It is also imperative that officers be cognizant of the ________ of an e- mail transmission, and that the content of e- mails could be subject to subpoena, possibly leading to embarrassment, or worse.

accountability

permanence

51

The________ is an eternity beyond our first mention of the paperless police department. Police, citizens, and criminals all live in the networked society with their iPods ( given free to the freshman class of Duke University), laptops, wireless fidelity ( WiFi), camera cell phones, digitized cameras, and video recorders.

digitally driven police department

52

In this age of man- made terror and disasters, as well as natural disasters, first responders should have all the technology they need paid for by ______ and ______. Law enforcement can no longer afford to technologically fall behind present- day high school and college students. All police officers need access to police databases and _____, at all times wherever they are, by using national and global wireless and satellite communications. This is simply a minimum standard for all police departments that wish to truly function _____ in the twenty- first century.

national and state governments

Google

proactively

53

What is possible today? Each officer can have a personal locator transmitter that keeps track of the officer and offers hands- free communication. The ________ is portable and has full- color video, two- way audio, and officer location and monitors and transmits vital signs. (RCIS)

Remote Control Information System ( RCIS)

54

The ___________, a user- friendly, client- based, PC system, provides information for an investigation or just for a beat officer. Graphics such as computer mapping and photo lineups will be available in the field, along with form- based software for field reports via the laptop. (ARJIS)

Advanced Regional Justice Information System

55

The Internet provides incredible services but needs _______.

organizing

56

One of the major issues (concerning new and web based technologies) is ________, including encryption protocols and privacy for address linkages and chat groups.

security......Personal encryption, which allows only the receiver to decrypt the message, offers a solution.

57

______ superimposes computer- generated data on a city street grid or other map.

Crime mapping

58

Crime mapping superimposes computer- generated data on a city street grid or other map. Data sets are taken from various public agencies, such as
• Demographic data from the C_____
• P______ agencies for location, condition, and paid or unpaid property taxes
• T_____ maps, with number of cars using these corridors
• Local police statistics and U_____
• Local crime and victimization s____
• C____ and c_______ files supplying residence and work addresses of parolees, probationers, and court- processed criminals
• Licensing units and p_______

• Demographic data from the Census Bureau
• Property tax agencies for location, condition, and paid or unpaid property taxes
• Traffic corridor maps, with number of cars using these corridors
• Local police statistics and Uniform Crime Reports
• Local crime and victimization surveys
• Court and community corrections files supplying residence and work addresses of parolees, probationers, and court- processed criminals
• Licensing units and public health data

59

Hypothesis- generating data with a spatial dimension, such as ________ include such items as abandoned cars, vacant buildings, litter, graffiti, and houses with a three- year non-payment of property taxes. These variables are useful for arson investigations when an arson incident map is superimposed over “broken windows” variables.

“ broken windows,”

60

The New York City Police Department’s _____ system has a program that summarizes data on a map by shading in such dimensions as number of burglaries, robberies, or muggings. The higher the number of crimes, the darker the shading. This is also done by graphing— by time, hour, day, week, or month— whichever time dimension is the most useful.

Crimetac

61

Compstat:
A major issue confronting police administrators and policymakers is how to ________ and its impact on crime.

monitor police performance

62

As discussed by Cope, _______ is a process by which crime is analyzed in order for police administrators to identify problem areas and respond accordingly.

Compstat

63

Many police administrators and scholars have asked about the origin of Compstat, and now it can be told. Compstat was originally a computer file called Compare Stats for the New York City annual report of crime statistics. It became a management program committed to ____________ at the ______ level and to the lowering of real crime rates.

management accountability

precinct

64

Weekly Compstat meetings have become a basis for planning, coordination, and evaluating crime fighting at the precinct level. In New York City, from 1994 to 1997, the rates of various serious crimes dropped significantly:
• Homicide dropped __ percent
• Rape, over __ percent
• Robbery, over __ percent
• Felonious assault, over __ percent
• Burglary, __ percent
• Grand larceny, over __ percent
• Grand larceny autos, over __ percent

• Homicide dropped 50 percent
• Rape, over 8 percent
• Robbery, over 40 percent
• Felonious assault, over 25 percent
• Burglary, 37 percent
• Grand larceny, over 31 percent
• Grand larceny autos, over 45 percent

65

This real decrease in crime was due to new policies and actions by the New York City Police Department and Commissioner William Bratton. The general contextual and demographic data for New York City changed very little during that time. Hence, the police department can take credit for the successful drop in crime rates. During Commissioner Bratton’s first year in office, ______ of the 76 precinct commanders were replaced. Some of the centralized responsibilities for drug enforcement, public morals, and auto theft were transferred to the ______ and _______ commands.

two- thirds

borough and precinct

66

Compstat:
Responsibility and decision making were decentralized down to the precinct level, and the precinct commander was held responsible for the level of crime in the precinct. The _________ was the unit of analysis and control rather than citywide functional units.

geography of the precincts

67

At a 7: 00 A. M. Compstat meeting, precinct commanders appear before the police brass to view two huge screens showing the latest crime statistics in the precinct. The meeting is devoted to strategies for fighting crime. Precinct commanders have more authority than they have had in years, but they also have more accountability. The key elements are timely and accurate _______, rapid deployment of _____, and relentless _______ and _______. Precinct commanders are summoned to the meeting randomly.

intelligence

resources

follow- up and assessment

68

Compstat Lessons Learned: What Worked
1. Instantly accessible i_______ in an easy- to- understand format
2. Accountability and decision making at the level of u______.
3. Wide sharing of i_______.
4. F______ and c_______ in crime fighting
5. P________ based on hard data
6. Q______ enforcement

1. Instantly accessible information in an easy- to- understand format
2. Accountability and decision making at the level of unit commanders
3. Wide sharing of information
4. Flexibility and creativity in crime fighting
5. Policy decisions based on hard data
6. Quality- of- life enforcement

69

Compstat Lessons Learned: How to Make It Better
1. E________ and ________ on street- level unit commanders and their line officers.
2. Once Compstat has brought down crime, do not _________. Unreasonable demands on street units can produce ________. This political interference in police management creates failure out of success.
3. 3. Integrate crime mapping with ________by sharing information and decision making with ________.

Eliminate unreasonable pressure and stress

create unreasonable demands to bring crime down even more when it is not possible

police brutality

community policing

community groups

70

Compstat and its various variations has become a planning tool for the twenty- first century by combining extensive crime- mapping data accumulation and reengineering. In his Compstat Paradigm , Vincent Henry sees Compstat as a tool that will be used to involve ________in the proactive crime- control process.

middle management

71

E- policing: In many cities and high- crime areas, _______systems are increasingly being installed. The main idea for ______ is to deter would- be criminals from committing offenses and to allow playback for identification of information and suspects after a major crime or event has occurred. _____ is being increasingly used in not only major cities and transportation facilities but also in schools, shopping malls, and retail outlets.

closed- circuit television ( CCTV)

CCTV

CCTV

72

To what extent does CCTV actually reduce crime? Welsh and Farrington examined the use of CCTV in England and the Unites States. They found that CCTV, when deployed with ______, has an impact on reducing crime. There are some operational realities. It is impossible for one person or a group of persons to monitor a number of cameras for a period of time unless there is some hint that a crime is about to occur. However, CCTV has been extremely useful in ________.

proper lighting

follow- up investigations after violent crimes have occurred.

73

Internet is being increasingly used by the public and many departments have Web pages that outline the department’s organization and services. Citizens can find the following types of information:
• Names and locations of s_______
• E______ alerts
• T_______
• File n________
• File c________

• Names and locations of serious sex offenders
• Emergency preparedness alerts
• Traffic conditions on major highways
• File nonviolent crime reports, including regarding minor traffic accidents
• File complaints or commendations regarding services

74

Defenses Against Cyberterror and Cyberattacks: Going beyond virus detectors and firewalls, police agencies need to have defenses to protect their cyberstructure. Cyberattacks and cyberterror come in the following main forms:
1. A_____________ the contents of electronic files and computer systems.
2. Destroying and disrupting h______, o_____, and p_______ .

1. Altering and destroying the contents of electronic files and computer systems
2. Destroying and disrupting hardware, operating platforms, and programs.

Thus, it is important for the information technology system in the department to have up-to- date defenses against attacks.

75

Law Enforcement at the Speed of Thought: In Business at the Speed of Thought, Bill Gates talked about organizations with “ digital nervous systems” that include internal and interagency e- mail, public Web sites accessed by the public for government services, electronic forms for all major applications in an organization, and all routine information being handled by computer with a customer service value- added orientation. The last point is the major function of ________.

community policing, in which the customers are the citizens.

76

Bill Gates recommends _______ for all knowledge workers.

laptop computers

77

THE ROLE OF THE CHIEF IN TECHNOLOGY: ....before a new technology is adopted, technology decision making should consider the following:
1. Review of b_____ and actual a________. This involves going to conferences, keeping up- to- date on technology presented in professional journals, and visiting other departments to see what is available and how it works.

benchmarks and actual applications

78

THE ROLE OF THE CHIEF IN TECHNOLOGY: ....before a new technology is adopted, technology decision making should consider the following:
2. V__________ checks. There are thousands of vendors who deal with police technology management systems. What is their reputation? How have other departments fared with a particular company? This information can be easily obtained by sending out inquiries on professional and regional listservs. Also, it is important to know how long the vendors have been in business and what their client list is.

Vendor background checks

79

THE ROLE OF THE CHIEF IN TECHNOLOGY: ....before a new technology is adopted, technology decision making should consider the following:
3. B______and value added to services. This often is the ________ in that there is no analysis of the long- term costs for appropriation, installation, and deployment. In addition, there should be an analysis of what is being gained by adopting the technology for patrol officers, supervisors, and managers.

Budget costs

main stumbling block

80

THE ROLE OF THE CHIEF IN TECHNOLOGY: ....before a new technology is adopted, technology decision making should consider the following:
4. S________ and maintenance. This is an area that is often related to item 3. The technology supply field has many vendors and is very competitive. We also know of many instances where vendors were merged or went out of business and were not able to deliver on service contracts.

Service costs

81

THE ROLE OF THE CHIEF IN TECHNOLOGY: ....before a new technology is adopted, technology decision making should consider the following:
5. Choice of i________or e_________. There are many dedicated and qualified police personnel who are software programmers and can build systems for the department; however, there has to be some kind of backup in personnel skills because major problems arise if the in- house police programmer decides to leave.

in- house or external vendor

82

THE ROLE OF THE CHIEF IN TECHNOLOGY: ....before a new technology is adopted, technology decision making should consider the following:
6. Creating in- house r______ and o_______. Every new technology has immediate impact on the police organization. Thus, it is important for administrators to have department review teams review the item and then analyze what impact it will have on the organization in terms of use and cost. This often involves field testing the item and evaluating the positive and negative results.

review and operations teams

83

THE ROLE OF THE CHIEF IN TECHNOLOGY: ....before a new technology is adopted, technology decision making should consider the following:
7. Related to item 6 is p_______. The department needs to prepare a w________ on the use of technology by officers, the need for training, and review by supervisors.

policy creation

written policy

84

THE ROLE OF THE CHIEF IN TECHNOLOGY: ....before a new technology is adopted, technology decision making should consider the following:
8. What is the l________? Technology is often adopted through a federal or state grant but little attention is paid to maintenance, replacement, and the long- term economic impacts. Simply stated, will the department be able to afford the system or items after the funding cycle ends?

long- term economic impact

85

Conclusion:
Most important, listen to your top management, middle management, and line officers and survey their opinions and needs. A system is only as good as ______. Surveys should be done before and after new technology is installed.

its users