Flashcards in Chpt. 5, Electrons Deck (20):

1

## light

### electromagnetic radiation; a type of wave

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## wavelength

### the distance from a point on a wave to the same point on the next wave; the symbol for wavelength is λ

3

## frequency

### the number of wavelengths that oscillate in one second; the symbol for frequency is ν

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## the speed of light

### (3.00 x 108 m/s); this value of sometimes represented by the letter c

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## the relationship between the speed, frequency, and wavelength of a wave

### λν = c

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## Planck's constant

### h is Planck‟s constant, 6.626 x 10-4 sec

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## frequency, wavelength, and the energy of light (in Joules)

### E = hν; the energy of light is related to its color

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## line spectrum

### the pattern of lines with different colors

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## orbitals

### the circular paths that electrons travel around the nucleus

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## ground states

### the lower energy orbitals that an electron can start in

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## excited states

### the higher energy orbitals that an electron can move up to

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## how an electron moves up and down the orbitals:

###
1. it starts in a low energy state called the ground state

2. when energy is added, the electrons absorb it and jump to higher energy orbitals called excited states

3. eventually, the electron loses its energy and returns to the ground state

4. the energy that the electron loses is given off as light; the energy of the light that is given off is equal to the precise amount of energy that is needed to move up to the given orbital, and this precise energy corresponds to a specific line on the line spectrum

5. because there are many spectral orbitals, there are many spectral lines given off when the electron jumps back to the ground state from each excited state; the summation of all these lines is what we observe as the line spectrum

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## the quantum numbers

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principal quantum number (n)

angular momentum quantum number (l)

magnetic quantum number (m-subscript-1)

spin quantum number (m-subscript-2)

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## principal quantum number (n)

### determines the energies of the electrons in an atom; possible values are 1, 2, 3, etc

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## angular momentum quantum number (l)

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determines the type of orbital that the electrons are located in; possible values include, 0, 1, 2, 3, etc, up to and including n-1; for example, if n = 3, the values of L are 0, 1, and 2

the value l = 0 corresponds to an s-orbital

l = 1 corresponds to a p-orbital

1 = 2 corresponds to a d-orbital

1 = 3 corresponds to an f-orbital

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## magnetic quantum number (m-subscript-l)

### ?

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## spin quantum number (m-subscript-s)

### allows us to tell the difference between the electrons that reside in an orbital. The allowed values for ms are +1/2 and -1/2, suggesting that only two electrons can reside in one orbital at a time

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## aufbau principle

### electrons fill up lower energy orbitals first, and then start filling up the higher energy orbitals

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## electron configuration

### the list of the locations of all the electrons in an atom

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