Circulatory and Respiratory Flashcards Preview

Biology 220 > Circulatory and Respiratory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Circulatory and Respiratory Deck (64):
1

atrium

(plural: atria) chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and sends blood to the ventricles

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closed circulatory system

system in which the blood is separated from the bodily interstitial fluid and contained in blood vessels

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double circulation

flow of blood in two circuits: the pulmonary circuit through the lungs and the systemic circuit through the organs and body

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gill circulation

circulatory system that is specific to animals with gills for gas exchange; the blood flows through the gills for oxygenation

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hemocoel

cavity into which blood is pumped in an open circulatory system

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hemolymph

mixture of blood and interstitial fluid that is found in insects and other arthropods as well as most mollusks

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interstitial fluid

fluid between cells

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open circulatory system

system in which the blood is mixed with interstitial fluid and directly covers the organs

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ostium

(plural: ostia) holes between blood vessels that allow the movement of hemolymph through the body of insects, arthropods, and mollusks with open circulatory systems

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pulmocutaneous circulation

circulatory system in amphibians; the flow of blood to the lungs and the moist skin for gas exchange

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pulmonary circulation

flow of blood away from the heart through the lungs where oxygenation occurs and then returns to the heart again

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systemic circulation

flow of blood away from the heart to the brain, liver, kidneys, stomach, and other organs, the limbs, and the muscles of the body, and then the return of this blood to the heart

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unidirectional circulation

flow of blood in a single circuit; occurs in fish where the blood flows through the gills, then past the organs and the rest of the body, before returning to the heart

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ventricle

(heart) large inferior chamber of the heart that pumps blood into arteries

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plasma

liquid component of blood that is left after the cells are removed


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platelet

(also, thrombocyte) small cellular fragment that collects at wounds, cross-reacts with clotting factors, and forms a plug to prevent blood loss

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red blood cell

small (7–8 μm) biconcave cell without mitochondria (and in mammals without nuclei) that is packed with hemoglobin, giving the cell its red color; transports oxygen through the body

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serum

plasma without the coagulation factors

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angina

pain caused by partial blockage of the coronary arteries by the buildup of plaque and lack of oxygen to the heart muscle

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aorta

major artery of the body that takes blood away from the heart

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arteriole

small vessel that connects an artery to a capillary bed
artery

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artery

blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart

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atherosclerosis

buildup of fatty plaques in the coronary arteries in the heart

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atrioventricular valve

one-way membranous flap of connective tissue between the atrium and the ventricle in the right side of the heart; also known as tricuspid valve

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bicuspid valve

(also, mitral valve; left atrioventricular valve) one-way membranous flap between the atrium and the ventricle in the left side of the heart

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capillary

smallest blood vessel that allows the passage of individual blood cells and the site of diffusion of oxygen and nutrient exchange

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capillary bed

large number of capillaries that converge to take blood to a particular organ or tissue

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cardiac cycle

filling and emptying the heart of blood by electrical signals that cause the heart muscles to contract and relax

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cardiac cycle

filling and emptying the heart of blood by electrical signals that cause the heart muscles to contract and relax

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cardiomyocyte

specialized heart muscle cell that is striated but contracts involuntarily like smooth muscle

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coronary artery

vessel that supplies the heart tissue with blood

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coronary vein

vessel that takes blood away from the heart tissue back to the chambers in the heart

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diastole

relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle when the heart is relaxed and the ventricles are filling with blood

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electrocardiogram (ECG)

recording of the electrical impulses of the cardiac muscle

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endocardium

innermost layer of tissue in the heart

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epicardium

outermost tissue layer of the heart

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inferior vena cava

drains blood from the veins that come from the lower organs and the legs

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myocardial infarction

(also, heart attack) complete blockage of the coronary arteries and death of the cardiac muscle tissue

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myocardium

heart muscle cells that make up the middle layer and the bulk of the heart wall

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pericardium

membrane layer protecting the heart; also part of the epicardium

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semilunar valve

membranous flap of connective tissue between the aorta and a ventricle of the heart (the aortic or pulmonary semilunar valves)

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sinoatrial (SA) node

the heart’s internal pacemaker; located near the wall of the right atrium

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superior vena cava

drains blood from the jugular vein that comes from the brain and from the veins that come from the arms

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systole

contraction phase of cardiac cycle when the ventricles are pumping blood into the arteries

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tricuspid valve

one-way membranous flap of connective tissue between the atrium and the ventricle in the right side of the heart; also known as atrioventricular valve

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vasoconstriction

narrowing of a blood vessel

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vasodilation

widening of a blood vessel

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vein

blood vessel that brings blood back to the heart

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vena cava

major vein of the body returning blood from the upper and lower parts of the body; see the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava

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venule

blood vessel that connects a capillary bed to a vein

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alveolar duct

duct that extends from the terminal bronchiole to the alveolar sac

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alveolar sac

structure consisting of two or more alveoli that share a common opening

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alveolus

(plural: alveoli) (also, air sac) terminal region of the lung where gas exchange occurs

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bronchus

(plural: bronchi) smaller branch of cartilaginous tissue that stems off of the trachea; air is funneled through the bronchi to the region where gas exchange occurs in alveoli

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bronchiole

airway that extends from the main tertiary bronchi to the alveolar sac

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diaphragm

domed-shaped skeletal muscle located under lungs that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity

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larynx

voice box, a short passageway connecting the pharynx and the trachea

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mucin

complex glycoprotein found in mucus

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mucus

sticky protein-containing fluid secretion in the lung that traps particulate matter to be expelled from the body

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particulate matter

small particle such as dust, dirt, viral particles, and bacteria that are in the air

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pharynx

throat; a tube that starts in the internal nares and runs partway down the neck, where it opens into the esophagus and the larynx

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primary bronchus

(also, main bronchus) region of the airway within the lung that attaches to the trachea and bifurcates to each lung where it branches into secondary bronchi

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respiratory bronchiole


terminal portion of the bronchiole tree that is attached to the terminal bronchioles and alveoli ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli

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terminal bronchiole

region of bronchiole that attaches to the respiratory bronchioles