circulatory disorders part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in circulatory disorders part 1 Deck (30):
1

hydrostatic pressure

pressure driving blood into capillaries (blood pressure)

2

oncotic pressure

protein pressure, moves fluid into vessels

3

inflammatory edema

increased vascular permeability 

exudate

4

non inflammatory edema

transudate

ie liver failure, CHF

5

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edema

wet, gelatinous/heavy, swollen organs,fluid weeps from cut surfaces, may be yellow

6

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histological appearance of edema

clear or pale eosinophilic staining depending on whether it is non inflammatory or inflammatory edeam.

spaces are distended

blood vessels may be filled with red blood cells

lymphatics are dilated

collagen bundles are separted.

7

only look at image of gelding

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pitting edema

 

pressure is applied to an area of edema a depression or dent results as result of excessive intersitial fluid that is forced into adjacent areas

8

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hydrothorax

fluid in thoracic cavity

9

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pericardia effusion

 

mulberry heart disease (inflammatory edema). 

 

note fibrin strands and cloudy appearance of the pericardial fluid

10

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ascites or hydroperitoneum 

 

fluid (transudate) within peritoneal cavity 

 

dog with CHF

11

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ascites

 

horse with CHF

12

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anasarca

 

generalized edema with profuse. accumulation of fluid within subcutaneous tissue

13

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submandibular edema (bottle jaw)

 

commonly associated with severe GI parasitism and hypoproteinemia in sheep

14

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protein losing enteropathy

 

horse forelimb, this animal has generalized edema

15

clinical significance of edema

dependent upon: extent location and duration

tissue may become firm and distorted due to an increase in fibrous connective tissue after prolonged edema

16

pulmonary edema

inflamm and non inflammatory

non inflammatory edema: associated to left-sided congestion heart failure

inflammatory edema: damage to pulmonary capillary endothelium (pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome)

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pulmonary edema, pig

18

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pulmonary edema

19

chronic pulmonary edema

most commonly associated with cardiac failure

alveolar walls become thickened--> may lead to fibrosis

congestion, micro-hemorrhages --> accumulation of heart failure cells

20

hyperemia and congestion

bother terms indicate local increase in blood volume and flow within vascular bed

 

hyperemia: increase of arteriole mediated engorgment of vascular bed. blood is oxygenated (red)

 

congestion indicates passive, venous engorgment. blood is not oxygenated (blue)

21

types of hyperemia

physiological hyperemia: digestion, exercise, dissipate heat, neurovascular (red cheeks)

pathological hyperemia: usually caused by inflammation

 

22

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gastric volvulus in dog

23

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intestinal volvulus in horse

24

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pulmonary congestion

 

usually result of heart failure and associated with edema

25

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chronic pulmonary edema and congestion secondary to left sided CHF

26

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subacute to chronic hepatic congestion

usually result of right sided heart failure

27

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chronic hepatic congestion

nutmeg liver

28

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29

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subacute hepatic congestion nutmeg liver

 

chronically there is low grade hypoxia, increase pressure of centrolobular hepatocytes leading to atrophy and necrosis

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