circulatory system Flashcards Preview

honors anatomy and physiology > circulatory system > Flashcards

Flashcards in circulatory system Deck (46)
Loading flashcards...
1

deoxygenated blood

right side of the heart

2

oxygenated blood

left side of the heart

3

flow of blood through the heart

deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior vena cava => right atrium contracts when full=> blood passes through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle=> right ventricle contracts and pumps blood to the pulmonary artery by way of the pulmonary semilunar valve=> blood goes to the lungs where it becomes oxygenated=> blood returns from the lungs through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium =>when the left atrium is full, it contracts and blood passes through the bicuspid valve into the left ventricle=> oxygen rich is blood is pumped out of the left ventricle through the aortic semilunar valve through the aorta to major arteries...body tissues

4

what controls the flow of blood in one direction?

-four sets of one way valves located at the entrances and exits of the ventricles
-AV bicuspid and tricuspid valves
-aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves

5

stenosed valves

valves are narrow slowing blood flow from chamber

6

mitral valve prolapse

flaps of mitral (bicuspid) valve extend back into the left atrium causing backflow of blood into the atrium when the ventricle contracts

7

circulation patterns

systemic and pulmonary

8

systemic circulation

describes blood flow from the left ventricle of the heart, through all parts of the body, and back to the right atrium

9

pulmonary circulation

describes the flow of blood from the right ventricle, to the lungs and back to the left atrium

10

artery

- a vessel that carries blood away from the heart
- the wall of an artery is thick and muscular to serve its function of transporting blood to the capillaries

11

capillaries

- microscopic vessels that carry blood from small arteries to small veins
- they have very thin walls which allows for the exchange of gases (CO2 and O2)

12

veins

- carry blood toward the heart
- they have thin walls and have one way valves that prevent the backflow of blood

13

how is the heart muscle itself nourished?

coronary arteries (left and right) and coronary veins

14

coronary arteries (left and right)

- supply blood to the cells of heart muscle
- first branches off the aorta
- both ventricles receive their blood supply from branches of right and left coronary arteries
- most abundant supply goes to the left ventricle (more mass)

15

coronary (cardiac) veins

blood for the heart muscle flows from coronary arteries, to capillaries, to coronary veins, and empties into the right atrium

16

congestive heart failure

- left ventricle can't keep up due to muscle weakness or hypertension
- blood will back up into the lungs
- eventually fluid seeps into tissues resulting in pulmonary edema

17

varicose veins

enlarged veins where blood tends to pool rather than continue to the heart

18

aneurysm

section of the artery has become abnormally wide bc of weakening arterial wall

19

cerebral vascular accident (CVA)

- stroke
- lack of O2 to the brain caused by ruptured aneurysm or embolism

20

ischemia

lack of O2 to heart cells

21

angina pectoris

- severe chest pain due to lack of O2
- nitroglycerin dilates blood vessels, increases blood flow and O2

22

myocardial infarction

- heart attack
- death of cardiac cells
- frequently caused by a blood clot (coronary thrombosis)
- permanent damage

23

atherosclerosis

- "hardening" of the arteries due to lipid buildup

24

angioplasty

- mechanical opening of the atherosclerotic artery
- balloon pushes plaque back to restore blood flow

25

stent

a tiny mesh tube that looks like a spring

26

murmur

abnormal heart sound due to faulty valves

27

what 4 things s the conduction system of the heart composed of?

1. sinoatrial (SA) node
2. atrioventricular (AV) node
3. AV bundle
4. Purkinje system

28

SA node

- located in the right atrium near the junction with superior vena cava
- w out any stimulation form the brain or spinal cord, cells in the SA node initiate impulses (action potentials) at regular intervals
- impulse travels from SA node throughout both atria
- atria begin to contract
- the SA node fires 70-80 times a minute

29

AV node

- located at the base of the right atrium
- delays the conduction so both atria contract while ventricles are relaxed

30

AV bundle

- group of connecting fibers in the septum between the ventricles
- bundle forms 2 branches, left and right, that carry impulses (action potential) down the septum to the apex of the heart

31

Purkinje fibers

- at the apex, carry action potential up and around the ventricle walls so the ventricles contract together

32

ECG (electrocardiogram)

- graphic record of the heart's electrical activity (conduction of impulses)
- not a record of the heart's contraction, but electrical events that precede them

33

P

-impulse from SA node through atria (depolarization of atria)
-precedes atrial contraction

34

QRS

- repolarization of the atria (returning to resting) and depolarization of the ventricles
- impulse is traveling through the AV bundle and Purkinje fibers

35

T

- repolarization of the ventricles
- represents resting period of the ventricles

36

tachycardia

- very rapid heart rhythm
>100 beats per minute
- normal: stress
- abnormal: blood loss, shock, drugs, fever, toxins

37

bradycardia

- slow heart rhythm
<50 beats per minute
- normal: slight is normal during sleep and for athletes
- abnormal: damaged SA node

38

fibrillation

- cardiac muscle fibers contract out of step w each other
- affected heart chambers do not effectively pump blood

39

normal blood pressure

120/80

40

systolic pressure

force with which blood is pushing against artery walls when ventricles are contracting

41

diastolic pressure

force of the blood when the ventricles are relaxed

42

high blood pressure (hypertension)

BP> 140/90; can raise risk for heart disease and stroke

43

primary hypertension

no single known cause

44

secondary hypertension

- "because of"
- result of kidney disease, hormone problems, oral contraceptives, pregnancy

45

risk factors for hypertension

genetics, gender (males higher), race (African-Americans higher), age, high stress, obesity, high levels of alcohol, high levels of caffeine, smoking, lack of exercise

46

warning signs of myocardial infarction

- persistent or recurring pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain in chest
- discomfort in other areas of upper body (one/both arms, back, neck)
- shortness of breath
- cold sweat, nausea, lightheadedness