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Flashcards in Civics Deck (93):
1

Asylum seeker

A person who seeks protection as a refugee and is still waiting to have his/her application for refugee status assessed

2

Bicameral System

A parliament consisting of 2 houses

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Bilateral

Where a treaty exists between Australia and one other country

4

Candidate

A person standing for election

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Cause-and-effect relationship

Where one event or action is the result of another

6

Citizen

A person who is a member of a certain country or city, who is granted certain rights and privileges because of this and is expected to act responsibly

7

Citizenship

The legal status of being a citizen, granted by birth or naturalisation, giving the citizen certain rights and responsibilities

8

Civics

The study of government and the rights and duties of citizens

9

Coalition

Elected individuals or parties who have united to achieve a specific purpose

10

Cohesive society

A society where citizens live together peacefully

11

Concurrent powers

Areas in which both the Commonwealth and state parliaments can make law; if the Commonwealth and the states make laws in an area of power that conflicts, the Commonwealth law will prevail

12

Constitution

A set of rules that determines how an organisation will be governed

13

Constitutional conventions

A series of meetings held in the late 1800s, where representatives from each colony discussed the creation of a new central Commonwealth parliament

14

Contravening

Disobeying or breaching

15

Court hierarchy

A ranking of courts from lowest to highest in order of the seriousness of the type of case they can determine

16

Crown

The Queen of England, who is the Head of State and part of each parliament in Australia; the governor general at Commonwealth level, and the governor at state level represents the Queen

17

Democracy

A system of government in which the people have the power to determine how they will be ruled or managed and so elect a parliament to make and implement laws on their behalf

18

Democratic election

An election where voters have the right to vote for whomever they choose

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Democratic values

The beliefs and values that are held by our society as a democracy

20

Direct democracy

Citizens meeting together to make laws for their society

21

Discrimination

Treating or proposing to treat, a person or group of people unfavourably because of personal characteristics such as age, race, disability, physical features or political beliefs

22

Dispute

Legal, an argument or disagreement between 2 or more parties to be resolved by the legal system

23

Double majority

The requirement that any proposed change to the wording of the Australian Constitution must be passed by a majority of voters in Australian and the states

24

Electorate

A designated geographical area that is represented by an elected member of Parliament

25

Executive

A group of senior members of parliament aka the cabinet

26

Exclusive powers

Areas in which only the Commonwealth Parliament can make law

27

Federal system

A system of government wear for the purposes of governing and lawmaking the nation has one central parliament and numerous state parliaments

28

Federation

This establishment of a system of government with one central Parliament and numerous state parliaments

29

Federation day

1 January 1901, the day when the British parliament passed a law called the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution act 1900, to unite the separate colonies of Australia and form one nation with the federal system of government

30

Freedom of political communication

The right to freely discuss and debate political issues

31

Global citizen

A person who identifies as being part of the world community and acts according to and seeks to build world community values and practices

32

Government

The elected members of parliament who make decisions for a nation or state. The government is made up of the party or coalition that has won a majority seat in the lower house of Parliament.

33

Governor general

The Queen's representative in Australia

34

Guilty

Verdict in a criminal case where the accused is found to have committed an offence; also referred to as a conviction

35

House of representatives

The lower house of the Commonwealth Parliament

36

House of review

The term often used to refer to the senate in that its role as reviewing legislation that has come from House of Representatives

37

Human rights

Rights that all human beings possess whatever Their nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language or any other status

38

Humanitarian

Concerned with or seeking to promote the welfare of humans

39

Implied rights

Rights that are deemed to exist by the High Court interpreting the Constitution

40

Judge

The person who presides over the western Australia district and supreme courts

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Judiciary

The courts

42

Jurisdiction

The power authority of the court to hear a particular type of dispute

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Jury

The group and randomly selected citizens who are called to determine the verdict in a criminal trial

44

Justice

All people should treat each other in a manner that is fair and balance for all

45

Justice system

A range of Organisations or bodies that make and enforce the law; including the courts, parliaments, police and prisons. Also referred to as the legal system

46

Justices

Experienced and senior judges that generally sit in the Supreme Court or higher

47

Kyoto protocol

An international treaty to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

48

Laws

Formal legal rules that are designed to govern the way in which people behave and act so we can all live together in one peaceful and united society

49

Legal obligations

A duty that is enforced by law

50

Legal system

A range of Organisations or bodies that make and enforce the law; including the courts, parliaments, police and prisons. Also referred to as the justice system

51

Legislation

A law made by Parliament also referred to as an act of parliament or statute

52

Liberal democracy

A form of government that is a representative democracy. A liberal democracy seeks to protect the rights of the individuals such as the right to vote in free and democratic elections

53

Lower house

One of the two houses of parliament where draft legislation bills are introduced

54

Millennium development goals

A UN initiative in which eight international development goals were established following the millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000

55

Multilateral

Where at treaty exists between Australia and two more countries

56

National budget

Annual estimate of how much money the government expects to receive and how it plans to spend it

57

Opposition

The second largest political party or coalition of parties after the government party, in the lower house of Parliament, that works to scrutinise and oppose government policies

58

Parliament

The National state lawmaking body that is made up of elected representatives in both the upper and lower house with a head of state. In Australia at the national parliament is referred to as the Commonwealth or federal parliament

59

Parliamentary democracy

A system of government when people elect representatives to parliament in order to make laws that reflect the majority of voters views

60

Participation

refers to the way good citizens contribute to take part in society

61

People's consultative assembly

The Indonesian national parliament which is responsible for making laws apply to the whole country

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People's Representative assembly

The lower house of Indonesian National Parliament often referred to as the House of Representatives

63

Policy

Statement of principles and aims that will shape future decision-making

64

Political system

Structure that determines who has power to make decisions for members of a state or country

65

Preamble

Short introduction commonly provided at the beginning of an act of parliament that explains its broad aims and objectives

66

Precedent

A legal principle that must be followed by magistrates and judges in lower courts in the same hierarchy in cases where the facts are similar

67

Provincial legislative assembly

Local state parliament elected by the residents of a specified geographical area called province

68

ratification

A process that legally binds Australia to implement the treaty

69

Referendum

The process of changing the words of the Australian Constitution

70

Refugee

Someone who has been assessed as being forced to flee their country due to war, persecution or natural disaster

71

Regional representatives council

The upper house of the Indonesian national parliament

72

Representative government

Parliamentary principle that requires members of parliament to make laws for and on behalf of the majority of voters. if the government does not make laws that reflect the views and values of the majority, they risk not being re-elected

73

Republic

A system of government whether people vote to determine the government rather than being governed by a hereditary monarch or crown

74

Residual powers

Areas of lawmaking power not mentioned in constitution and so belong to the State only

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Resolution

A formal proposal to be adopted in law

76

Responsible government

A parliamentary principle that requires members of parliament to be answerable to The voters and carry out their duties in an honest manner or resign

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Rights and responsibilities

refers to entitlements and duties as citizens

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Royal Assent

Written approval by the Queen's representative, on behalf of the queen, for a bill to become law, after both houses of parliament have passed the bill

79

Rule of law

The principle that the laws apply equally to all individuals and organisations throughout a nation and must be upheld by all. The rule of law also means that the law can only be enforced and altered by those within the legal authority to do so

80

Senate

The upper house of the Federal Parliament of Australia that has 76 senators. 12 from each of the six states and 2 from the territories

81

Senators

Individuals elected to the upper house of the federal parliament

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Separation of powers

Parliamentary principle that ensures no single group or body within our parliamentary system- that is not of the parliament the government or the courts -has the power to make, implement, apply and interpret the law

83

Social cohesion

The ability of a group of people or community to live together in a peaceful and unified manner

84

Specific powers

Areas in which the Commonwealth Parliament can make laws. specific powers and maybe concurrent or exclusive

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Supreme Court

The highest court in a state hierarchy that hears the most serious criminal and civil cases

86

Treaties

Reaching international obligations which country is bound to observe

87

Trial

A hearing to resolve and determine the outcome in a criminal or civil dispute heard in the district or Supreme Courts

88

United Nations

An international organisation formed in 1945 with the aim of increasing political and economic corporation amongst member countries

89

Universal declaration of human rights

The declaration adopted by the United Nations General assembly on 10 December 1948 that sets out basic human rights that should be universally protected

90

Upper house

The second chamber of the two chamber parliament. the Senate is the other house in federal parliament and the legislative council is the upper house of the Western Australian state parliament

91

Verdict

The decision made by a magistrate judge or jury in a court hearing on trial

92

Vilify

To speak or write about another person in an insulting or degrading manner

93

West minister system

The Parliamentary system of Great Britain where Parliament consists of two houses and the crown. it is the Parliamentary system used in Australia