Classic Labs/Findings Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Classic Labs/Findings Deck (104):
1

Anticentromere antibodies

Scleroderma (CREST)

2

Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies

Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)

3

Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies

Goodpasture's (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis)

4

Antihistone antibodies

Drug-induced SLE (hydralazine, isoniazid, procainamide, phenytoin)

5

Anti-IgG antibodies

Rheumatoid factor of rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, bountonniere deformity)

6

Antimitochondrial antibodes (AMAs)

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal HTN)

7

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)

Vasculitis
--> c-ANCA: granulomatosis with polyangiitis [Wegener's]
--> p-ANCA: microscopic polyangiitis, Churg Strauss syndrome

8

Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti Smith and anti-dsDNA)

SLE (type III hypersensitivity)

9

Anti-topoisomerase antibodies

Diffuse systemic scleroderma

10

Anti-tranglutaminase antibodies
Anti-gliadin antibodies
Anti-endomysial antibodies

Celiac disease (diarrhea, distention, weight loss)

11

"Apple core" lesion on abdominal x-ray?

Colorectal cancer (usually L-sided)

12

Azurophilic peroxidase-positive granular inclusions in granulocytes and myeloblasts

Auer rodes (AML M3)

13

Bactiracin sensitive and resistant

Sensitive: Group A Strep
Resistant: Group B Strep

14

"Bamboo spine"

Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis, HLA B27)

15

Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs

Howell-Jolly bodies (splectomy or nonfunctional spleen)

16

Basophilic stippling of RBCs

Lead poisoning
Sideroblastic anemia

17

Bloody tap on LB

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

18

Boot shaped heart on CXR

Tetralogy of Fallot
RVH

19

Branching gram + rods with sufur granules

Actinomyces israelii

20

Bronchogenic apical lung tumor

Pancoast tumor

21

"Brown" tumor of bone

Hyperparathyroidism or osteitis fibrosa cystica (deposited hemosiderin from hemorrhage)

22

Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy

Chagas' disease (Typanosoma cruzi)

23

Cellular crescents in Bowman's capsule

RPGN

24

"Chocolate cyst" of the ovary

Endometriosis

25

Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils

Homer Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma)

26

Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in the lungs

Cystic fibrosis (AR CFTR mutation)

27

Decreased alpha fetoprotein in the amniotic fluid/maternal serum

Down syndrome of other chromosomal abnormality

28

Degeneration of the dorsal column nerves

Tabes dosalis if isolated
Subacute combined degeneration (if with the lateral corticospinal tracts): B12 or E deficiency

29

Depigmentation of the neurons in the substantia nigra

Parkinson's Disease: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia

30

Desquamated epithelial cases in the sputum

Curschmann's spirals: bronchial asthma

31

Disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid

Call-Exner bodies: granulosa theca cell tumors of the ovary

32

Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia

Koliocytes (HPV)

33

Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies

"Owl's eye" in CMV

34

Enlarged thyroid cells with ground glass nuclei

"Orphan annie's eyes" nuclei: papillary carcinoma of the thyroid

35

Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in the liver

Mallory bodies: alcoholic liver disease

36

Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in the nerve cells

Lewy body: parkinsons, lewy body dementia

37

Eosinophilic globule in the liver

Councilman body: toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever

38

Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cells

Negri bodies of rabies (lyssavirus)

39

Extracellular amyloid deposition in grey matter of the brain

Senile plaques (Alzheimers)

40

Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions (Owls eye)

Reed Sternberg cells (Hodgkin's lymphoma)

41

Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells

Schiller-Duval bodies: yolk sac tumor

42

"Hair on end" (crew cut) appearance on X-ray

Beta thalassemia
Sickle cell anemia
**marrow expansion

43

hCG elevated

Pregnancy
Choriocarcinoma
Hydatidiform mole

44

Heart nodules (granulomas)

Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)

45

Heterophile antibodies

Infectious mononucelosis (EBV)

46

Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions

Bronchial asthma (Charcol-Leyden crystals)

47

High levels of D dimers

DVT, PE, DIC

48

Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesion in the middle or lower lung lobes

Ghon complex (primary tb)

49

"Honeycomb lung" on x-ray or CT

Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis

50

Hypercoaguability leading to migrating DVTs and vasculitis

Trousseau's syndrome (adenocarcinoma of the pancreas or lung)

51

Hypersegmented PMNs

Megaloblastic anemia (B12 deficiency: neuro sx, folate def: no neuro sx)

52

Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis

Conn's syndrome (aldosterone producing adenoma)

53

Hypochromic, microcytic anemia

IDA, lead poisoning, thalassemia (fetal Hb sometimes present)

54

Increased AFP in the amniotic fluid/maternal serum

Dating error
Anencephaly
NTDs

55

Increased uric acid levels (4)

Gout
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
Tumor lysis syndrome
Loop and thiazide diuretics

56

Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet-like bodies

Cowdry type A bodies (HSV or CMV)

57

Iron-containing nodules in the alveolar septum

Ferruginous bodies (asbestosis)

58

Keratin pearls on skin biopsy

Squamous cell carcinoma

59

Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes, immunodeficiency

Chediak-Higashi disease: congenitial failure of phagolysosome formation

60

Lead pipe appearance on barium enema x-ray

Ulcerative colitis (loss of haustra)

61

Linear appearance of IgG deposition on glomerular BM

Goodpasture's

62

Low serum ceruloplasmin

Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)

63

"Lumpy bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence

PSGN (immune complex deposition of IgG and C3b

64

Lytic (punched out) bone lesions on x-ray

Multiple myeloma

65

Mammary gland "blue domed" cyst

Fibrocystic change of the breast

66

Monoclonal antibody spike

Multiple myeloma (IgG or IgA)
MGUS: normal consequence of aging
Waldenstrom's: IgM
Primary amyloidosis

67

Mucin-filled cell with peripheral nucleus

Signet ring cells: gastric carcinoma, krukenburg

68

Narrowing of the bowel lumen on barium x-ray

"String sign" of Crohns

69

Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and glomerulonephritis

Wegner's (c-ANCA)
Goodpastures (anti BM antibody)

70

Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals

Gout (monosodium urate crystals)

71

Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli

Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)

72

Sensitive and resistant to novobiocin

Sens: S. epidermidis
Res: S. saprophyticus

73

"Nutmeg" liver

Chronic passive liver congestion due to right heart failure

74

"Onion skin" periosteal reaction

Ewing's sarcoma: malignant round cell tumor

75

Optochin sensitive/resistant

Sens: S. pneumoniae
Res: Viridans streptococcus

76

Periosteum raised from the bone, creating a triangular area

Codman's triangle: osteosarcoma, also Ewing's and pyogenic osteomylitits

77

Podocyte fusion or effacement on EM

MCD: child with nephrotic syndrome
FSGS

78

Polished, ivory like appearance at cartilage erosion

Eburnation seen in osteoarthritis

79

Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of protein tau

Neurofibrillary tangled (Alzheimers)
Pick's bodies (Pick's disease)

80

Psammoma bodies

Papillary thyroid carcinoma
Serous carcinoma of the endometrium and ovary
Meningioma
Mesothelioma

81

Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy

Glioblastoma multiforme

82

RBC casts in the urine

Acute glomerulonephritis

83

Rectangular, crystal-like, cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells

Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)

84

Renal epithelial casts in the urine

Acute toxic/viral nephrosis

85

Rhomboid crystals/positively birefringent

Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals)

86

Rib notching

Postductal coarctation of the aorta

87

Ring-enchancing brain lesions in AIDS

Toxoplasma gondii
CNS lymphoma

88

Sheets of medium sized lymphoid cells with scattered, pale, tingible body-laden macrophages

Burkitt's lymphoma (t(8;14) c-myc activation, associated with EBV)

89

Silver staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons

Pick bodies

90

Soap bubble in femur or tibia on xray

Giant cells tumor of the bone (benign)

91

Spike and dome appearance with subepithelial deposits

Membranous glomerulonephritis

92

Rouleaux

High ESR
Multiple myeloma

93

Stippled vaginal epithelial cells

"Clue cells" of Garderella vaginalis

94

"Tennis racket" shaped cytoplasmic organelles in Lagnerhans cells

Birbeck granules

95

Thrombi made up of red/white layers

Lines of Zahn - arterial thrombus (layers of platelets and RBCs)

96

Thumb sign on lateral x-ray

Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenzae)

97

Thyroid-like appearance of the kidney

Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis

98

Tram-track appearance of glomerular BM on light microscopy

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

99

Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles

Fatty liver disease: alcoholic or metabolic syndrome

100

"Waxy casts" with very low urine flow

Chronic end-stage renal disease

101

WBC casts in the urine

Acute pyelonephritis

102

WBCs that look "smudged"

CLL (B cell)

103

"Wire loop" glomerular capillary appearance on light microscopy

Lupus nephropathy (diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis)

104

Yellowish CSF

Xanthochromia (due to subarachnoid hemorrhage)