Flashcards in Climate Deck (42)
What is mean annual temperature?
The average of maximum and minimum temperatures for every day in a year over a period of many years.
If there is an increase in latitude, there is a ......... in temperature.
Places near the equator are hotter/colder than places nearer the poles.
Why is energy recieved from the Sun greater near the equator than near the poles?
The Sun's rays are more concentrated at the equator and pass through less of the atmosphere. (Vertical rays rather than oblique rays.)
What are the three reasons why the temperature decreases towards the poles?
-Angle of of the Sun's rays.
-Area heated up.
-Amount of atmosphere the rays pass through.
When looking at the angle of Sun's rays, which angle would be warmer and which would be colder?
Warmer: perpendicular angle of Sun's rays.
Colder: oblique angle of Sun's rays.
When looking at the area of the Sun's rays, which surface area of the Sun's rays would be warmer and which would be colder?
Warmer: smaller surface area, so rays are concentrated.
Colder: larger area, so rays are spread out (scattered).
When looking at the amount of atmosphere between the Sun and the earth, which amount of atmosphere for the Sun's rays to pass through is warmer, and which is colder?
Warmer: less atmosphere to pass through, so less energy lost through scattering, absorption, reflection etc.
Colder: more atmosphere to pass through, so more energy lost through scattering, absorption, reflection etc.
Any form of water falling from the atmosphere, including rain, snow, hail, sleet, dew, frost etc.
Why is precipitation usually in the form of rain near the equator?
Latitudes near the equator are warmer.
What form does precipitation in the poles take?
What does the sea do in relation to temperature?
The sea moderates temperature.
Places far from the sea have more ............ ............. than places at or near the sea.
What is temperature range?
The difference between the highest and lowest temperature. (H-L)
What are the four reasons for sea surfaces being colder then land surfaces in the summer?
- Water is *transparent* so rays penetrate deeper (bigger area to heat) while only the top surface of land was arms up.
- Water *moves* and distributes heat (waves and currents)
- *Evaporation* from water surface (uses energy) so cools the water.
- Water *reflects* much of the Sun's energy. (Albedo)
When are oceans heated more slowly than land?
During the day and in summer.
Why is the ocean warmer than the land that cools more rapidly in the winter and at night?
The oceans retain more heat than the land.
Do temperatures over the ocean or land remain more constant?
The further inland one is from the sea, the smaller/greater the temperature differences between seasons.
What is altitude?
Height above sea level.
True or false:
The atmosphere is heated directly by the Sun.
The atmosphere is heated by the earth's surface. (Not directly by the Sun.)
Explain Heating Of The Atmosphere in four steps.
-Short wave radiation called insolation warms the earth.
-The earth warms up and re-radiates long wave radiation.
-Long wave radiation called terrestrial radiation warms the atmosphere.
-Water vapour and carbon dioxide absorb the terrestrial radiation.
The greater the altitude the .......... the temperature.
What does water vapour, dust and CO2 in the atmosphere prevent?
The heat in the atmosphere from escaping rapidly.
What happens as the altitude increases making it cooler?
The amount of water vapour, gas and dust decreases and the heat is able to escape more rapidly.
What average rate does temperature decrease at (when increasing altitude)?
0,65C per 100m
How do you work out temperature using altitude?
(height you're finding temperature of) - (starting height)
(that answer) ÷ 100m
(that answer) x 0.65C
Which ocean current is warm, and which is cold, and which is on the west and which is east?
Benguela - cold, west.
Agulhas - warm, east.
True or false:
Places close to the warm Agulhas current will be warmer than places close to the cold Bengula current.