What is oedema?
- Oedema is the excessive volume of fluid within the tissues (interstitial / intracellular) which can occur due to changes in capillary dynamics
- It is often seen in heart failure as there is increased capillary hydrostatic pressure
What are ventricular ectopic beats?
- Ventricular ectopic beats are when an ectopic focus in the ventricle muscle prevents the spread of impulse via the fast His -purkinje system
- Hence, much slower depolarisation of ventricle (wide & bizzare QRS complex)
What is claudication?
Claudication is pain in the muscles of the lower limb elicited by walking / exercise
What is sepsis?
Sepsis is a serious life-threatening response to infection, can lead to septic shock
What is thrombophlebitis?
Thrombophlebitis is an inflammatory process that causes a venous thrombosis to form, commonly in the legs:
- Superficial thrombophlebitis
- Deep vein thrombosis
What is ventricular tachycardia?
- Ventricular tachycardia involves a run of ≥ 3 consecutive ventricular ectopics producing broad QRS complexes
- Persistent VT is a dangerous rhythm, requires urgent treatment and has a high risk of ventricular fibrillation
What is transposition of the great arteries?
- Transposition of the great arteries is a congenital condition resulting in two unconnected parallel circulations instead of two circulations in series
- The left ventricle is connected to the pulmonary trunk, and the right ventricle to the aorta
What is Tetralogy of the Fallot?
- Tetralogy of Fallot is a group of 4 abnormalities occurring together as the result of a single developmental defect which places the outflow portion of the interventricular septum too far in the anterior and cephalad directions
- The 4 abnormalities are: pulmonary stenosis, RV hypertrophy, VSD, overriding aorta
What is coarctation of the aorta?
Coarctation of the aorta is the narrowing of the aortic lumen in the region of the ligamentum arteriosum (former ductus arteriosus)
What is septic shock?
Septic shock is persisting hypotension requiring treatment to maintain blood pressure despite fluid resuscitation
What is patent foramen ovale?
Patent foramen ovale is the persistence of the foramen ovale after birth, causing blood to flow from the left atrium back into the right
What is mitral valve regurgitation?
Mitral valve regurgitation is the prolapse of the mitral valve, resulting in the backflow of blood from the left ventricle, possibly causing left ventricle hypertrophy
What are varicose veins?
Varicose veins are tortuous, twisted, or lengthened veins
What is Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome?
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a rare congenital heart defect in which the left heart is severely underdeveloped resulting in inadequate right to left flow in utero
What is a deep vein thrombosis?
- A deep vein thrombosis is the formation of a thrombus within a deep vein, most commonly the deep calf veins
- It produces an inflammatory response (calor, dolor, rubor, tumor, functio laesa)
What is mitral valve stenosis?
Mitral valve stenosis is the narrowing of the mitral valve, obstructing blood flow into the left ventricle, possibly causing right ventricle hypertrophy, atrial fibrillation and oesophageal compression
What is rest pain?
- Rest pain is pain in the foot that comes on when the patient goes to bed and is relieved by hanging the foot out of the bed
- The ischaemia is so severe that at rest the foot skin, muscles, bones are ischaemic at rest, if left untreated then will progress to gangrene/ulceration
What is atrial fibrillation?
- Atrial fibrillation is a condition where impulse arise from multiple atrial foci, leading to chaotic atrial depolarisation wherein atria quiver rather than contract
- It carries risk of thrombosis
What is angina?
- Angina is a condition arising due to insufficient O2 supply to the heart for a limited duration caused by artheromatous plaque formation in the coronary arteries
- It results in heart tissue Ischaemia which presents as chest pain
What is patent ductus arteriosus?
Patent ductus arteriosus is a condition involving the persistence of the ductus arteriosus after birth, causing blood to flow from the aorta into the pulmonary arteries
What is heart failure?
Heart failure is a state in which the heart fails to maintain an adequate circulation for the needs of the body despite an adequate filling pressure
What is congestive (biventricular) heart failure?
- Congestive heart failure is a chronic progressive condition in which the heart's function as a pump is inadequate to meet the body's needs
- Both the right and left sides of the heart fail to pump adequately, hence, the signs and symptoms of both right and left heart failure develop
What is cardiogenic shock?
Cardiogenic shock is the acute failure of the heart to maintain cardiac output (pump failure)
What is pericarditis?
- Pericarditis is the inflammation of the pericardium often secondary to a viral illness
- It commonly occurs in men and adults
What is cardiac tamponade?
Cardiac tamponade is when blood/fluid builds up in pericardial space, restricting the filling of both sides of the heart and limiting the end diastolic volume
What is Coronary Heart Disease?
CHD is a condition in which atherosclerotic plaques accumulate in the coronary arteries
What is aortic valve stenosis?
Aortic valve stenosis is the narrowing of the aortic valve, obstructing blood flow into the aorta and possibly causing left ventricle hypertrophy, syncope and angina
What is haemodynamic shock?
Haemodynamic shock is an acute condition of inadequate blood flow throughout the body due to a catastrophic fall in arterial blood pressure
What is pericardial effusion?
Pericardial effusion is when excess fluid accumulates in the pericardial cavity, compressing the heart due to the inextensible fibrous pericardial layer
What is aortic valve regurgitation?
Aortic valve regurgitation is the prolapse ofte aortic valve, resulting in the backflow of blood from the aorta, possibly causing left ventricle hypertrophy
What is peripheral arterial disease?
Peripheral arterial disease is a common condition, in which a build-up of fatty deposits in the arteries restricts blood supply to leg muscles
What is distributive shock?
- Distributive shock is low resistance shock (normovolaemic) due to profound peripheral vasodilation (decrease in TPR)
- Blood volume is constant, but volume of the circulation has increased
What is STEMI?
- ST segment elevation Myocardial infarction is a condition occurring due to complete occlusion of lumen by thrombus
- Muscle injury extends ‘full thickness’ from endocardium to epicardium and ST segment elevation is observed in leads facing area
What is hypertension?
Hypertension is the sustained increase in blood pressure
What is hypovolaemic shock?
Hypovolaemic shock is a state of shock due to reduced blood volume, most commonly due to haemorrhage
What is an ostium secundum atrial septal defect?
Ostium secundum atrial septal defect occurs when the ostium secundum fails to close completely while the heart is developing, causing an opening to develop in the centre of the wall separating the two atria
What is ventricular fibrillation?
- Ventricular fibrillation is the abnormal, chaotic and fast ventricular depolarisation due to impulses from multiple ventricular ectopic foci
- The ventricles quiver as there is no co-ordinated contraction, no cardiac output and is a state of cardiac arrest
What is an acute coronary syndrome?
- An acute coronary syndrome is a condition wherein acute myocardial ischaemia occurs due to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease
- Atheromatous plaques rupture with thrombus formation causing an acute increased occlusion leading to ischaemia
What are AV conduction blocks?
A heart block is a delay/ failure of conduction impulses from the atrium to the ventricles via the AVN and bundle of His
What is anaphylaxis?
Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction