Schizophrenia Dopamine Hypothesis Claim.
Claim: schizophrenia is caused by hypersensitive dopamine receptors or an excess of dopamine receptors leading to high levels of dopamine.
Mesolimbic system = positive symptoms
Mensocortical symptoms = Negative symptoms
Schizophrenia Dopamine Hypothesis Opposition
- This theory is based on animals which can’t get psychosis.
- Cannot establish cause an effect.
- Alpert and Friedhoff found some people don’t improve after dopamine antagonist
Schizophrenia Dopamine Hypothesis Application
This can be used to give schizophrenia suffers anti-psychotic drugs
Schizophrenia Dopamine Hypothesis Supporting Evidence.
- When people take amphetamines people experience symptoms of psychosis (Parkinson example)
- Owen et al found schizophrenia suffers have higher levels of dopamine receptors in the cerebral cortex.
- Liverman et al found 75% of schizophrenics had more sever symptoms after amphetamines
Schizophrenia Dopamine Hypothesis Different theory
- Brown and Birely found 50% of patience’s reported a major life 3 weeks prior to the condition. environmental factors.
- Glutamate in low levels can also lead to schizophrenia
Schizophrenia Genetics Claim
Schizophrenia is caused by genetic inheritance.
MZ twins only have 40-50% concordance rates despite identical genetics.
- Brown and Birley event.
- Family studies have higher concordance rates due to shared environment.
Schizophrenia Genetics Application
-Led to research into genetics and schizophrenia. Could cause a cure or at least warn someone who is at risk.
Schizophrenia Genetics Supporting
- Gottesman: MZ twins 48% chance to both have schizophrenia whilst only 27% for DZ twins.
- Tienari: 6.7% adopted children had schizophrenia when they’re mothers had schizophrenia compared to 2% without schizophrenic mothers
- Sekar: Found C4 gene increased the risk of schizophrenia across 30 different countries using 100,000 DNA samples.
Schizophrenia Genetics Different theory
Dopamine hypothesis and environmental stress.
Schizophrenia Social Causation Claim
Schizophrenia is a result of social stressors and social class. Those in lower class are more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia Social Causation Opposition
- Can’t establish cause and effect
- Environmental stressors are not always present (Brown and Birley)
- Diafnosis issue, lower class job could just offer more chance to see a doctor.
Schizophrenia Social Causation Application
Assertive community therapy and supportive health care services can target environmental stressors to help the individuals cope so symptoms are reduced.
Schizophrenia Social Causation Supporting
Cooper found single men in unskilled labour jobs are 4.1 times more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia compared to managerial jobs.
- Gottesman only found 48% concordant rates toward MZ twins
- Mortensen found people living in the city are 2 times more likely than people in rural areas to be diagnosis with schizophrenia.