Flashcards in CM: EOM Dysfxn & Systemic Dz Deck (13):
What is amblyopia?
What are the three main causes of amblyopia?
refractive: if one eye has sharper vision than other, child may suppress poorer eye
strabismic: if child sees double due to misalignment, one eye may get suppressed
occlusion: if child cannot see out of one eye due to opacity of ocular media, visual inputs from that eye may not develop
What is the treatment of amblyopia?
refractive: glasses, persist after 4-8 wks --> patch
strabismic: surgical realignment of eyes and patch, maybe glasses for refractive component
remove opacities of ocular media
better if treated before 10 yrs old
What is the rule of a CN III palsy?
isolated CN III palsy that spares pupil is usually caused by infarct - but there are exceptions
What are the characteristics of the eye in CN III palsy?
down and out, ptosis, fixed and dilated pupil
What is the eye position in CN VI palsy?
esotropia - pointed inward
What is the eye position in CN IV palsy?
up and out --> vertical diplopia
pt may have head tilt away to even it out
What are the ocular manifestations seen in diabetes?
nonproliferative: microaneurysm, dot and blot hemorrhages, hard exudates, macular edema, retinal thickening may cause blurred vision
proliferative: retinal ischemia, cotton wool spots, neovascularization --> vitreous hemorrhage, fibrous tissue can contract --> retinal detachment and blindness
What are the ocular manifestations seen in HTN?
copper-wire arterioles progress to silver-wire arterioles
AV nicking, narrowing of vessels
malignant HTN (diastolic >120) - exudates, cotton wool spots, flame shaped hemorrhages, macular edema, bilateral optic disc swelling if severe
What are the ocular manifestations in thyroid dz?
unilateral or bilateral proptosis (exopthalmos)
exposure keratopathy --> foreign body sensation and irritation, can have EOM dysfxn and corneal damage
diplopia may require strabismus surgery
rarely compression of optic N will require decompression
What are the ocular manifestations seen in sarcoidosis?
conjunctival non-caseating granulomas, eyelid granulomas
ant or post uveitis
optic neuropathy and CN palsies
dry eyes and lacrimal gland enlargement
What are the ocular manifestations of malignancy?
basal cell carcinoma most often on eyelids
also squamous cell and sebaceous carcinomas
abnormal scaly, erythematous, or nodular lesion of eyelids
metastatic >>> primary