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Unit 3: Pharm - Liza > CNS I > Flashcards

Flashcards in CNS I Deck (26):
1

What are the 3 criteria that must be satisfied for a molecule to be classified as a NT?

present at presynaptic nerve terminal, released upon stimulation of presynaptic nerve terminal, activate receptors on postsynaptic membrane

2

What are the 6 steps in neurochemical transmission?

1) transport and synthesis
2) storage (synaptic vesicles)
3) NT release
4) postsynaptic receptor activation
5) reuptake of NT
6) degradation of NT

3

Will an IPSP occur at rest?

NO, because the cell membrane potential is already at equilibrium

4

direct/indirect receptor types for glutamate, gaba, glycine receptors

Glutamate: Ionotropic/Metabotropic
GABA: GABA-A/GABA-B
Glycine: all are direct

5

At what 3 steps does G-Protein Coupled Receptor signal amplification occur? What is significant about these steps?

1) Receptor/G-Protein binding
2) 2nd messenger production (adenyl cyclase/cAMP step)
3) protein kinase phosphorylation of target proteins

Important b/c all steps can be important therapeutic targets

6

What are the direct receptor types and the indirect receptor types?

Direct: ligand-gated ion channels
Indirect: G-protein coupled receptors

7

direct/indirect receptor types for dopamine, NE, Epinephrine, Serotonin, Histamine

all are indirect! except Seratonin has a direct receptor: 5HT3

8

What is tachyphylaxis?

acute (sudden) decrease in response to drug after its administration maybe due to receptor uncoupling

9

What is coactivation? potentiation?

NT needs a second agonist in order to activate. Potentiation is where compounds increase response to agonist by binding to an allosteric site on the receptor

10

Why does one get long term downregulation or upregulation?

It's due to decrease (or increase) in receptor number, NOT acute uncoupling. It can occur w/prolonged administration of an agonist (downregulation) or an antagonist (upregulation)

11

What are the neuronal origins and projections of cholinergic neurotransmitters?

Origins: widespread, nucleus basalis of Meynert, medial septal nucleus, brain stem nuclei

Projections: widespread, cortex, hippocampus, thalamus

12

What are the functions of cholinergic NTs and neuropharmacology associated with them?

Functions: mostly excitatory CNS, involved in cognition

Neuropharm: dementia (Alzheimers)

13

What are the neuronal origins and projections of glutaminergic neurotransmitters?

Origins: thalamus, subthalamic nucleus

Projections: widespread, cortex, hippocampus

14

What are the functions of glutaminergic NTs and neuropharmacology associated with them?

Functions: major excitatory CNS NT, involved in learning/memory (long term potentiation)

Neuropharm: epilepsy, excitotoxicity

15

What are the neuronal origins and projections of GABAergic/Glycine neurotransmitters?

Origins: widespread, interneurons

Projections: widespread, cortex, neostriatum

16

What are the functions of GABAergic/Glycine NTs and neuropharmacology associated with them?

Functions: major inhibitory CNS NT

Neuropharm: sedative hypnotics, antianxiety (anxiolytics), anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants

17

What are the neuronal origins and projections of noradrenergic neurotransmitters?

Origins: locus coeruleus

Projections: widespread

18

What are the functions of noradrenergic NTs and neuropharmacology associated with them?

Functions: emotion (mood), arousal, fear, stress, anxiety

Neuropharm: antidepressants (MAOIs), attentiveness (ADHD), wakefulness (narcolepsy and amphetamines)

19

What are the neuronal origins and projections of dopaminergic neurotransmitters?

Origins: substantia nigra

Projections: basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex, limbic system

20

What are the functions of dopaminergic NTs and neuropharmacology associated with them?

Functions: voluntary movement, behavior, neuroendocrine secretion

Neuropharm: parkinson's, psychosis, hyperprolactinemia (pituitary adenoma)

21

What are the neuronal origins and projections of serotonergic neurotransmitters?

Origins: raphe nuclei

Projections: widespread

22

What are the functions of serotonergic NTs and neuropharmacology associated with them?

Functions: emotion (mood), sleep

Neuropharm: antidepressants (TCAs, SSRIs), hallucinations (LSD, ecstacy (MDMA)), antiemetic

23

What are the neuronal origins and projections of histaminergic neurotransmitters?

Origins: tuberomammillary nucleus (ventral posterior hypothalamus)

Projections: widespread, cortex, hippocampus, neostriatum, limbic system

24

What are the functions of histaminergic NTs and neuropharmacology associated with them?

Functions: wakefulness, motion

Neuropharm: sedation, cold and allergy symptoms, motion sickness

25

What are the effects of Serotonin Syndrome?

agitation/restlessness, diarrhea, fast HR, changes in BP, hallucinations, confusion, hypomania, fever, ataxia, hyperreflexia, shivering, excessive sweating, tremor, nausea, vomiting, muscle spasms (myoclonus)

26

What are the side effects to taking anticholinergics?

dry mouth, dry eyes, dry skin/flushing, blurred vision, constipation, increased HR, difficulty emptying bladder, headache, confusion, exacerbation of glaucoma