Coastal flooding-Southern Asia Boxing Day Tsunami Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Coastal flooding-Southern Asia Boxing Day Tsunami Deck (9):

When did it occur?

26th December 2004


Areas that were affected?

Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and India


What caused the Tsunami?

A submarine Earthquake in the Indian Ocean


Where did the Tsunami travel across and at what speed?

Across the Bay of Bengal at 800 kilometres per hour.


How high were the waves on the Island of Sumatra?

30m high


Economic impacts of the Tsunami?

-Costs were between $8 billion and $15 billion
-Fishing large part of economy for areas hit by tsunami. Boats, nets, and other equipment destroyed, affecting livelihood of fishermen
-Salinisation of land has severely reduced soil fertility. Crop production low in the long term.
-Tourism important for economy in areas affected. 25% of hotels in Southern Thailand closed for 6 months due to damage. Foreign visitors to Phuket dropped 80% in 2005 as area was less safe.


Environmental impacts of disaster?

-8 million litres of oil released into the environment after two oil plants in Indonesia destroyed. Caused widespread pollution and contamination of the soil.
-Mangrove forests as far away as the East African Coast damaged by force of waves, or covered in silt.
-High salt content of water destroyed many ecosystems e.g. Karagan Lagoon in Southern Sri Lanka


Social impacts of the disaster?

-Deadliest tsunami recorded, 230,000 people killed or missing.
-1,7 million people made homeless
-Sources of fresh drinking water polluted-by sewage or saltwater
-400,000 lost their jobs in Sri Lanka


How does human activity increase the impact of the flooding?

-Mangrove forests protected parts of the Sri Lankan coast by absorbing wave energy. Tourist development and prawn fisheries led to destruction of mangrove forests. Thailand lost half of its mangrove forests since 1975. Lack of protection meant waves could reach further inland.
-Healthy coral reefs surrounding Maldives acted as a breakwater preventing the destruction of low-lying islands. Illegal coral mining and 'blast fishing' destroyed many offshore coral reefs in Indian Ocean reducing protection.