Flashcards in Collection and Physical Exam of Urine Deck (58):
What is first morning collection?
Collecting urine first thing in the morning: most concentrated, higher cellular elements and/or protein
What is fasting-second collection?
Urine voided after 8 hours of fasting.
What is postprandial-first collection?
Urine voided before a meal and specimen collected 2 hours after eating
What does a timed (aka 24 hr collection) collection measure? 5
urine urea nitrogen
What is midstream clean catch? why preferred?
prefered type of urine collection for bacteria and sensitivity culture/testing. preferred bc there is a reduced incidence of cellular and microbial contamination
what happens when urine sits for a long time?
RBCs undergo lysis, urine becomes alkalinized with the preciptation of salts
What is the most common urine preservative chemical?
what is the preferred way of preserving urine?
how soon after collection must testing happen?
What are the 3 parts of a routine urinalysis?
What are the 3 aspects of the physical exam? A4SV
Appearance (color, clarity, foam, odor)
What is the pigment that makes urine yellow?
What pigment may contribute pink/red coloration?
3 pathogenic WHITE color variations. CLP
Chyle (milky body fluid of lymph, fats, FFA's)
Pyuria (many WBC's)
2 non-pathogenic WHITE color variations
2 pathogenic YELLOW/ORANGE color variations. LC
liver dysfunction (++urobilin or bilirubin)
2 pathogenic YELLOW/GREEN color variations. BB
5 non-pathogenic YELLOW/ORANGE color variations. CCFVM
carrots (beta carotene)
concentrated urine (dehydration)
vit. B or C
1 non-pathogenic YELLOW/GREEN color variation
4 pathogenic PINK/RED color variations RHMP
3 non-pathogenic PINK/RED variations BFM
1 pathogenic RED/PURPLE color variation. P
5 pathogenic RED/BROWN/BLACK color variations BMMMH/A
4 non-pathogenic BROWN/BLACK color variations. IFAM
1 pathogenic BLUE color variation. P
4 non-pathogenic BLUE color variations. VTDM
What makes urine white and cloudy?
amorphous phosphates preciptates
what makes urine pink and cloudy
amorphous urate precipitate (uroerythrin)
What makes urine cloudy?
salts / crystals
what makes urine hazy?
what makes urine smoky?
What makes urine turbid? LBPPE
what makes urine milky? 2
fat or chyle
2 pathogenic CLEAR color variations. VdP
polyuria (DM or DI)
non-pathogenic CLEAR color variation
How would the urine appear if you observed these in it: "varying degrees of casts, cells, crystals/calculi, fat, microorganisms, fecal contaminatation"?
Pathogenic or not?
5 non-pathogenic substances that may create a hazy/cloud/turbid appearance. CCMRPF
3 pathogenic causes of FOAMY urine
++protein (kidney disease)
Fistula from colon to bladder (fecal cont.)
3 non-pathogenic causes of FOAMY urine
cause of "sweet/fruity" odor
cause of "pungent" odor
bacteria (ammonia, eg UTI)
cause of "maple syrup" odor
amino acids (maple syrup urine disease)
cause of "musty/mousy" infant urine odor
cause of "rancid butter/fishy" odor
cause of "stronger ammonia" odor
4 aspects of urine concentration test. SRPO
what is specific gravity of urine?
ratio of weight: vol. urine: vol. distilled water
What does specific gravity measure?
concentrating and diluting ability of the kidneys
What is one of the first functions to be lost in the case of kidney tubular damage?
urine concentration ability
What is normal specific gravity range?
What does the refractive index measure? How?
Specific gravity via the total number of solids (aka how dense) in the urine. By how much light refracts when moving through urine
what specifically do pKa strips measure?
Ionic concentration; specific gravity
what makes urine more acidic?
increase in specific gravity
what does urine osmolality measure?
total solute concentration
how are urine osmolality and specific gravity different?
Osmolality measures number of particles in the solution
pKa measures the number and weight of the solutes
what is osmolality a better indicator than pKa for?
determining the concentrating and diluting abilities of the kidney
Is osmolality usually measured in routine assessments?