Flashcards in Common Invx In Neuro D Deck (11):
Imaging: skull and spinal Xrays
Enlargmenet of pituitary fossa
Subdural + extradural haematoma
Midline shift of intracranial structures
Tumours, infractions, haemorrhages, clot, MS plaques, the posterior fossa, foramen magnum + SC.
B- mode and colour USS- carotid stenosi
Measures brain activity- scalp electrodes on 16 channels simultaneously.
Dx epilepsy + semsitive for encephalopathies.
LP for CSF
Dx of meningitis + encephalitis,
+ MS, neuro syphillis, sarcoidosis + Behcets D.
Therapeutically- intrathecal injection of drugs like methotraxate for chemo,
Or removal of CSF in ⬆️ idiopathic intracranial HTN.
Typical changes in CSF meningitis
Normal: Appearance clear, mononuclear cells 50%
Pyogenic: Turbit/ purulent, 50 glucose.
Turbid/Viscus, 100-300 mononuclear, 0-200 polymorphs, 0.5-3.0 protein,
Electrical acitivity of muscles ate rest and during voluntary contraction.
Small electeose needle into muscle.
Usually in conduction w/ nerve conduction studies- measure the speed of conductiom of impulses through a nerve.
Used to inv D odpf muscles, nerves or neuromuscular junctions.
Inv of suspected muscle D
1.Serum Creatine phosphokinase (CK) and Aldose
3. Muscle biopsy- histology+ immunohistochemical staining
⭐️ for Dx of muscle disease.
MRI- muscle inflammation + oedema+ fibrosis
Causes of cerebellar lesions
Space occupying lesions: 1o tumour -medulloblastoma,
2o tumour, abscess, Haem.
Chronic alcohol abuse- Werinkes encephalopathy