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Flashcards in Communicable Disease Deck (13):

What are the symptoms of measles?

The main symptoms of measles are a fever and a red skin rash. (Measles is a serious disease that can cause blindness and brain damage and may be fatal if complications arise).


How is measles spread?

The virus is spread by the inhalation of droplets from coughs and sneezes and is very infectious.


What is salmonella?

Salmonella is a bacteria that live in the guts of many different animals.


What are the symptoms of salmonella?

The symptoms develop within 8-72 hours of eating infected food. Fever, abdominal cramps, vomiting, and diarrhoea are caused by the bacteria and the toxins they secrete. Also you can get infected by salmonella food poisoning.


How is salmonella controlled?

In the UK, poultry are vaccinated against salmonella to control the spread of the disease.


What is gonorrhoea?

Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD), which are also known as sexually transmitted infections (STIs).


What are the symptoms of gonorrhoea?

Like many STDs, gonorrhoea has symptoms in the early stages but then becomes relatively symptomless. The early symptoms include a thick yellow or green discharge from the vagina or penis and pain on urination. (Untreated gonorrhoea can cause long-term pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancies).


How is gonorrhoea controlled?

Gonorrhoea is bacterial, so it can be treated with antibiotics. Originally it was easily cured using penicillin but now many antibiotic-resistant strains of gonorrhoea have evolved so it is increasingly difficult to treat. The spread of gonorrhoea can also be prevented by using a barrier method of contraception such as a condom and by reducing the number of sexual partners.


What are the symptoms of rose black spot (fungal disease)?

It causes purple or black spots to develop on the leaves. The leaves often turn yellow and drop early. (As a result the plant does not flower well).


How is rose black spot spread?

The spores of the fungus are spread in the environment, carried by the wind. They are then spread over the plant after it rains in drips of water that splash from one leaf or plant to another.


How is rose black spot treated?

Gardeners try to prevent the spread by removing and burning affected leaves and stems. Chemical fungicides can also help to treat the disease and prevent it spreading.


What are the symptoms of malaria (protist disease)?

The symptoms are that they affect the liver, damage red blood cells, fever, and shaking.


How can malaria be controlled?

This can be controlled in a number of different ways. These include:
- Using insecticide-impregnated insect nets to prevent mosquitoes biting humans and passing on the protists.
- Using insecticides to kill mosquitoes in homes and offices.
- Preventing the vectors from breeding by removing standing water and spraying water with insecticides to kill the larvae.
- Travellers can take antimalarial drugs that kill the parasites in the blood if they are bitten by an infected mosquito.