Communicable diseases key terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Communicable diseases key terms Deck (37):
1

pathogen

a microorganism that causes disease

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Direct transmission

passing a pathogen from host to new host with no intermediary

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indirect transmission

passing a pathogen from host to new host via a vector

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transmission

passing a pathogen from an infected individual to a uninfected individual

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vector

an organism that carries a pathogen from one host to another

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callose

a large polysaccharide deposit that block old phloem sieve tubes

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inflammation

swelling and redness of tissue caused by infection

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mucous membrane

specialised epithelial tissue that is covered by mucus

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primary defences

those that prevent pathogens entering the body

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antigen presenting cells

a cell that isolates the antigen from a pathogen and places it on the plasma membrane so it can be recognised by other cells in the immune system

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clonal selection

selection of specific B or T cell that is specific to the antigen

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cytokines

hormone like molecules used in cell signalling to stimulate the immune response

13

neutrophil

a type of white blood cell that engulfs foreign matter and traps it in a large vacuole (phagosome) which fuses with lysosomes to digest the foreign matter

14

opsonins

proteins that can bind to the antigen on a pathogen and then allow phagocytes to bind

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antibodies

specific proteins released by plasma cells that can attach to pathogenic organisms

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B memory cells

cells that remain in the blood for a long time providing long term immunity

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clonal expansion

an increase in the number of cells by mitotic cell division

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interleukins

signalling molecules that are used to communicate between different white blood cells

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plasma cells

derived from the B lymphocytes these are cells that manufacture antibodies

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T-helper cells

cells that release signalling molecules to stimulate the immune response

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T-killer cells

cells that attack and destroy our own body cells that are infected by a pathogen

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T-memory cells

cells that remain in the blood for a long time providing long term immunity

23

T-regulator cells

cells that are involved with ending the Immune response

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agglutinins

antibodies that cause pathogens to stick together

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anti toxins

antibodies that render toxins harmless

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opsonins

antibodies that make it easier for phagocytes to engulf the pathogen

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primary immune response

the initial response caused by a first infection

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secondary immune response

a more rapid and vigorous response caused by a second or subsequent infection by the same pathogen

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active immunity

when the immune system is activated and manufactures its own antibodies

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artificial immunity

immunity that is achieved as a result o medical intervention

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epidemic

a rapid spread of disease through a high proportion of the population

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natural immunity

immunity achieved through normal life processes

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passive immunity

immunity achieved when antibodies are passed on to the individual through breastfeeding or antibody injection

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vaccination

a way of stimulating the immune response so that immunity is achieved

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Antibiotic

a chemical which prevents the growth of microorganisms, antibiotics can be antifungal or antibacterial

36

Personalised medicine

the development of designer medicines for individuals

37

Synthetic biology

the re-engineering of biology
- production of new molecules that mimic natural processes
-the use of natural molecules to produce new biological systems that do not exist in nature