Complications of pregnancy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Complications of pregnancy Deck (25):
1

1st trimester
2nd trimester
3rd trimester

1-12
13-27
28-40

2

age of viability

24 weeks

3

various body changes during pregnancy?

-hypercoaguable state
-increased pH from resting hyperventilation
-decreased systemic vascular resistance
-progesterone relaxes smooth muscle leading to decreased peristalsis
-decreased creatinine

4

MCC of meternal mortality

-PE
-HTN (pre-eclampsia/eclampsia)

5

complications of twins

one fetus will take more and the other know will be anemic and the other polycythemic

6

vanishing twin

If the twin vanishes very early, the remaining twin is usually fine, however if one twin vanishes in the 2nd/3rd trimester there is a higher risk for the other fetus

7

most serious risk of multiple gestations

spontaneous preterm birth from stretch of the uterus

8

Braxton hicks

-usually come at very late phase of 3rd trimester but sometimes they come early….even if they present w/preterm contractions only 50% deliver then, the rest the contractions halt

9

How to prevent preterm birth

-progesterone
-cervical cerclage

10

tocolytic agent

-temporarily halt contractions
-but only partially delays for a few days, only given for woman that need a 2 day delay
-Steroids given to mother have positive effect on fetus, this 2 day window form tocolytics is really used just to give the mother steroids (only for preterm)

11

main tocolytic med

indomethacin

12

post-term pregnancy

born at gestational age >42 weeks, higher rate of morbidity and mortality due to insufficient O2/blood

13

oligohydramnios

Too little amniotic fluid
Amniotic fluid produced by kidneys of fetus, removal of fluid is done by fetus swallowing amniotic fluid
PROM also will cause this

14

polyhydramnios

Fetus is producing more urine from the mother having diabetes, decreased fetal swallowing

15

PROM

16-26 weeks (preterm, midtrimester) non-viable
26-37 weeks (prelabor) viable

16

(marginal) placenta previa

presence of placental tissue that extends over or lies at the margin to the internal os

17

total placenta previa

will bleed a lot, it is central

18

any woman over 20 weeks pregnant presenting with painless vaginal bleeding may have

placenta previa, no digital vaginal exam, do transabdominal US first

19

accreta

-placenta adheres to myometrium, leading to difficulty delivering the placenta

20

increta

-placenta invades even deeper into myometrium

21

percreta

-entire myometrium is invaded….WORST

22

MC risk factor for placenta accreta is

previous C-sections

23

placental abruption

placenta detaches before fetus is delivered
Unlike previa, this causes bleeding and PAIN due to contractions

24

abdominal pain with or without bleeding, you should still think of

placental abruption

25

primary and secondary PPH

-occurs within first 24 hours
-24 hours to 12 weeks after delivery
-Atony is primary cause in primary/secondary-large uterus cannot contract well, leads to massive bleeding