Composition and Phases of Matter Flashcards Preview

Science Module 4 > Composition and Phases of Matter > Flashcards

Flashcards in Composition and Phases of Matter Deck (50):
1

What is the Tyndall effect?

the scattering of light

2

What is molarity (M)?

mol/solution

3

What is molality (m)?

mol/solvent

4

Substance vs mixture?

Substance - cannot be separated physically
Mixtures - can be separated physically

5

Two or more elements are combined

Compounds

6

A mixture of two metals

alloy

7

What are suspensions?

Mixtures with enough weight difference to separate

8

What are colloids?

Appear homogenous but are heterogenous and show the tyndall effect

9

extent of solubility

Saturation Concentration

10

What does Henry's law state?

Solubility of gas increases when pressure increases

11

Solubility of gas increases when ______ decreases

temperature

12

Adding more solute will ______ boiling point

elevate

13

Adding more solute will ______ freezing point

depress

14

Adding more solute will ______ vapor pressure

lower

15

Adding more solute will ______ osmotic pressure

elevate

16

turns blue litmus paper red

acid

17

do acids change the color of phenolpthalein?

no

18

tastes bitter

bases

19

Arrhenius Theory: acid releases _____ and bases release _____

acid - H
bases - OH

20

Brønsted- Lowry Theory: acids are proton (H+) _____ and bases are proton ____

acids - proton DONORS
bases - proton ACCEPTORS

21

The Lewis Theory is just the opposite of the Brønsted- Lowry Theory, true or false?

yes (states that acids are electron pair ACCEPTORS)

22

What is produced in a neutralization reaction (acid+base)?

water and salt

23

gas to solid

deposition

24

solid to gas

sublimation

25

solid to liquid

melting

26

liquid to solid

freezing

27

liquid to gas

evaporation

28

gas to liquid

condensation

29

state of matter where particles are disassociated sea of electrons and positive nuclei

plasma

30

bose-einstein condensate

particles don't have individual properties and act like a single atom (only made artificially)

31

phase changes are caused by what?

temperature and pressure

32

the forces of attraction that exist between molecules of matter

Intermolecular Forces of Attraction (IMFA)

33

IMFA is stronger in ______

solids and liquids

34

What are London dispersion forces?

bonding between nonpolar fat molecules and hydrocarbons

35

What are dipole-dipole interactions?

occure between neutral polar molecules

36

Hydrogen bonding is?

involves a dipole consisting of H and a very electronegative atom (N O F)

37

Which is the weakest IMFA?

London dispersion

38

Are boiling point and viscosity proportional to the strength of the IMFA?

yes

39

What is surface tension?

Force distribution that leads to the minimization of surface area

40

Forces between like molecules: cohesion or adhesion?

cohesion

41

The theory that explains behavior of gases

Kinetic Particle Theory

42

the law on the inverse relationship between gas volume and pressure

Boyle's law

43

What is Charles' Law?

Volume and temperature are in direct proportion

44

What is Gay-Lussac's Law?

Pressure and temperature are in direct proportion

45

What is Avogadro's Law?

Volume of gas and amount of moles are in direct proportion

46

universal gas constant

0.0821 l(atm)/mol(K)

47

Standard temperature and pressure (STP)

273K at 1.0 atm

48

What does Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures state?

Total pressure of mixture of gases is simply the sum of partial pressures of each component

49

Escape of gas through a small hole

Effusion

50

What law states that the rate of effusion is inversely proportional with the square root of its molecular mass?

Graham's Law of Effusion