Flashcards in Composition and Phases of Matter Deck (50):
What is the Tyndall effect?
the scattering of light
What is molarity (M)?
What is molality (m)?
Substance vs mixture?
Substance - cannot be separated physically
Mixtures - can be separated physically
Two or more elements are combined
A mixture of two metals
What are suspensions?
Mixtures with enough weight difference to separate
What are colloids?
Appear homogenous but are heterogenous and show the tyndall effect
extent of solubility
What does Henry's law state?
Solubility of gas increases when pressure increases
Solubility of gas increases when ______ decreases
Adding more solute will ______ boiling point
Adding more solute will ______ freezing point
Adding more solute will ______ vapor pressure
Adding more solute will ______ osmotic pressure
turns blue litmus paper red
do acids change the color of phenolpthalein?
Arrhenius Theory: acid releases _____ and bases release _____
acid - H
bases - OH
Brønsted- Lowry Theory: acids are proton (H+) _____ and bases are proton ____
acids - proton DONORS
bases - proton ACCEPTORS
The Lewis Theory is just the opposite of the Brønsted- Lowry Theory, true or false?
yes (states that acids are electron pair ACCEPTORS)
What is produced in a neutralization reaction (acid+base)?
water and salt
gas to solid
solid to gas
solid to liquid
liquid to solid
liquid to gas
gas to liquid
state of matter where particles are disassociated sea of electrons and positive nuclei
particles don't have individual properties and act like a single atom (only made artificially)
phase changes are caused by what?
temperature and pressure
the forces of attraction that exist between molecules of matter
Intermolecular Forces of Attraction (IMFA)
IMFA is stronger in ______
solids and liquids
What are London dispersion forces?
bonding between nonpolar fat molecules and hydrocarbons
What are dipole-dipole interactions?
occure between neutral polar molecules
Hydrogen bonding is?
involves a dipole consisting of H and a very electronegative atom (N O F)
Which is the weakest IMFA?
Are boiling point and viscosity proportional to the strength of the IMFA?
What is surface tension?
Force distribution that leads to the minimization of surface area
Forces between like molecules: cohesion or adhesion?
The theory that explains behavior of gases
Kinetic Particle Theory
the law on the inverse relationship between gas volume and pressure
What is Charles' Law?
Volume and temperature are in direct proportion
What is Gay-Lussac's Law?
Pressure and temperature are in direct proportion
What is Avogadro's Law?
Volume of gas and amount of moles are in direct proportion
universal gas constant
Standard temperature and pressure (STP)
273K at 1.0 atm
What does Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures state?
Total pressure of mixture of gases is simply the sum of partial pressures of each component
Escape of gas through a small hole