What is consciousness?
Awareness of self and surroundings operates on a continuum: focused alertness –> daydreaming -> coma.
What is 'the hard problem' (Chalmers).
The problem of explaining how and why we have qualia or phenomenal experiences — how sensations acquire characteristics, such as colors and tastes.
What is the monitoring view of consciousness?
You experience what you attend to.
What is the controlling view of consciousness?
Plan, initiate and guide actions - future possibilities, choosing between alternatives.
Give an example of actions that are always unconscious?
Give examples of actions that are normally unconscious but can be brought under some conscious control.
Give an example of a skilled action learned with conscious effort but becomes automatic.
Give an example of a skilled action that once learned can be conscious or unconscious.
Give an example of an action that always seem to be done consciously.
Recalling a phone number
What is subliminal perception?
Stimuli below individual’s threshold for conscious perception.
What is ironic process theory?
Refers to the psychological process whereby deliberate attempts to suppress certain thoughts make them more likely to surface.
What are the two main forms of meditation?
Concentrative or one-point - diminish sensory input, attentional effort. Repeat mantra, ponder a koan, relaxation movement eg Tai chi
Open meditation - aware of everything around, experience not met with a response eg mindfulness
What is Kilstrom's definition of hypnosis?
A social interaction in which one person (the subject) responds to suggestions offered by another (the hypnotist) involving alterations in perception, memory, and voluntary action. In the classic case, these experiences and their accompanying behaviours are associated with subjective conviction bordering on delusion, and involuntariness bordering on compulsion.
What are the two views on hypnosis?
Altered consciousness - reported by 40% of hypnotised, divided stream of consciousness, the hidden observer
Period of focussed attention - reported by 60% of hypnotised, state of social compliance and suggestibility.