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Flashcards in Context: Historical, Social, Religious and Political Deck (24):

when did the french revolution occur?

1789 (six years before Keats' birth)


how did the English (especially the first gen. romantics) regard the french rev?

very enthusiastically- when it first occurred it was strongly supported by many- particularly the English intelligentsia


when and why did the English opinion of the French revolution change?

1792/3 due to the:
1) after the September massacre
2)the execution of the King and Queen
3)Robespierre's reign of terror


leading voice against the french rev in the UK and main line of argument

Edmund Burke who published Reflections on the Revolution in France in 1790. His argument was based on the idea that men were not naturally equal and that long-established traditions and institutions should be protected


leading voice for the french rev in the UK and main line of argument

Thomas Paine who in Rights of man stated that 'Every age and generation must be as free to act for itself, in all cases, as the ages and generations which preceded it. The vanity and presumption of governing beyond the grave, is the most ridiculous and insolent of all tyrannies. Man has no property in man.'


when was Britain at war with France (date and relation to keats)

1793-1815 (from before he was born until he was 20)


impact on war with France upon British society (5)

1)Britain became militarised to a much greater extent than had occurred in any earlier conflict:
2) ~750,000 men were drafted into the armed forces, in particular the navy
3)Demand for sailors led to many men being ‘impressed’ (compelled against their will) to serve
3)The women left behind often had to rely on their parish for poor relief
The civilian population had to live with the constant fear of French invasion


when was Napoleon defeated?

battle of Waterloo 1815


what was the economic state of England in this period and why?

1793-1815 was a time of extreme poverty and hardship:
-disruption to trade with France resulted in a soar in food prices due to food shortages
- the enclosures of the previous century and technological advancement such as the development of agricultural and spinning machinery reduced employment in rural areas
-mass migration of skilled workers to the cities leaving rural area full of unemplyement, homelessness and widespread distress
-children worked as chimney sweeps


governments response to the poverty and why

The Government took a hard line towards the poor, especially in the light of revolution in France- they arrested radical leaders and suppressed working class meetings as they feared it would lead t a revolution


which decrees were introduced in the Combination Acts and by who?

in the 1790s PM William Pitt introduced the following decrees in the combination act:
1) banning working men from combining into clubs and societies
2) suspension of the right to appear before a judge o court when arrested


what what the Peterloo massacre and when did it happen?

1819 at St Peter’s Field in Manchester, the local magistrates attempted to disperse a peaceful gathering of some 60,000 people who had gathered to protest about their economic conditions – and used soldiers to do so. This action resulted in 11 dead and 4-500 injured


how did contemporary radical politics support Keats decision to pursue poetry as a vocation

Keats close friend Cowden Clarke was a supporter of Leigh Hunt (also a friend of keats). Hunt as a radical publisher in 'the examiner' a journal which advocated political reform and frequently criticised those in power. In 1813 he had been imprisoned for libelling the Prince Regent and in 1814 Clarke frequently visited him in his prison cell.


Keats attitude towards Napoleon

-he opposed the the aristocracy who were waging a counter-revolutionary war against Napoleon Bonaparte.
-Keats greeted the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 with his poem On Peace, in which he called on the victors to support political reform.


why was transport development important for keats poetry?

travel increased and with it a taste in rural scenery as romantic artist and poets travelled to rural areas where they could observe wild and remote scenery


why did Keats' relationship with Fanny Brawne cause him so much anguish

1) unequal education opportunities for girls and boys
2)the importance of marriage


explain why education caused angush for Keats' relationship wth Fanny Brawne

Because Fanny seems not to have developed the depth of thought and sensibility of Keats- this was due to:
1) undervaluation of women's eductaion-Girls were usually taught at home by their mother, as generally it was only boys who went to school.
2) major social accomplishment for
girl would be to be more 'marriageable' therefore the arts/music/languages were prioritised over education/ intellectual acitivity


why did the importance of marriage cause so much anguish for keats' relationship with Fanny Brawne?

-Keats could not afford to marry Fanny Brawne this was problematic as marriage was generally a womans sole hope of finacial security:
-A single woman legally belonged to her father and was financially dependent on him
-When married, a woman's dependence transferred to her husband
-If a woman was wealthy, her husband had to be selected (usually by her father) with caution as her money would become his after the marriage.


what is methodism?
(aim, founder, when founded+ relation to keats)

-a religious movement which began in the 18th cent.
-aim to reform the Church of England from within
-founded by John Wesley (an Anglican priest) and his brother Charles as they
both underwent an intensely emotional religious experience in 1738
-Methodism grew rapidly during the period of Keats life- especially in indurstial areas


which biblical doctrines did Welsey re-emphasis?

1) Individuals may be assured of their salvation because of the grace of God
2)By the power of the Holy Spirit, they are capable of attaining perfect love for God and their fellow human beings.


link between Methodism and Romanticism?

Methodism: stress the individuals personal relationship with God
Romanticism: stressed the primacy of the imagination and each man's individual response to experience


What is Evangelicalism

-predominatley anglican movement which started in the mid-eighteenth century which had strong links to methodism


main characteristicsof evangelisicalism?

-A literal interpretation of the Bible
-Strict keeping of the Sabbath
-Preaching in order to convert
-Reform of the heart
-A stress on the sins of humanity
-The need for personal salvation.


evangelicals views on slavery/ social hierachy and effect on keats

passionately opposed to them - whilst Keats ulitmately rejected the christian message the passionate strength of his convictions has much in common with the energy to be found in the religious movements of his time.