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Flashcards in Continental Drift Deck (58):
1

What are the two contexts in which earth's history has to be understood

Spacial Context and Temporal Context

2

What is the Spatial context of earth's history

Plate Tectonics

3

Explain the theory of plate tectonics

It states that earth's continents periodically fragment and merge which explains the biodiversity and evolutionary divergence of fauna

4

Who is the creator of the idea of continental drift

Alfred Wegener

5

what are three "proofs" of continental drift

Fit of opposing shorelines of continents

Peculiar distribution of minerals

Peculiar biogeographic distributions

6

What were two peculiar biogeographic distributions that helped prove continental drift

The peculiar distribution of marsupials: Eg they exist in both australia and south america
eg: characiformes (freshwater fishes) exist in both africa and south america

7

What happened during the Permian stage

All landmasses merged into the pangea

8

What was the pangea

the single super continent.

9

What was pangea the birthplace of

Terrestrial vertebrates

10

What happened during the Triassic

Continents broke up

11

What were the names of the north and south continents that broke up during the traissic

Laurasia - north

Gondwana - South

12

What happened during the Cretaceous

Modern continents were isolated

13

Did movement of continents have an impact on climate?

Yes!

14

Larger land masses have more ___- climates

arid

15

During the _____ period, most of the Pangea was on the equator

Mesozoic

16

Large/small terrestrial vertebrates developed in tropical conditions

Large

17

How did continents increase climate zonations

Because large land masses block ocean currents

18

How were mountains and volcanoes produced

Continental collisions

19

Species are more ____ distributed on larger land masses

widely

20

Can mountains create terrestrial barriers?

Yes

21

What kind of deserts can mountains create?

Rain shadow deserts

22

What has higher biodiversity, mountains or flat arease

Mountains

23

What is the temporal context of earth's history

Geological Time

24

Is evolution fast or slow

It can be either, but generally it was slow

25

How long has earth evolved

4.6 billion years

26

What is uniformitarianism

Means that the processes that operate now are the same that operated in the past

27

Example of uniformitarianism

Rock strata

28

What is gradualism

It states that uniformitarian processes can, after a long time, produce major effects

29

Example of gradualism

The Grand Canyon

30

What decides the time scale of evolution

Mass extinctions

31

What is this acronym:
Camels Often Sit Down Carefully, Perhaps Their Joints Creak Terribly Q

Cambrian
Ordovician
Silurian
Devonian
Carboniferous
Permian
Triassic
Jurassic
Cretaceous
Tertiary
Quaternary

32

What is the cenozoic age?

Age of Mammals

33

What is the mesozoic age?

Age of Reptiles

34

What is the devonian age?

Age of Fishes

35

What were the three eras

Cenozoic, Mesozoic and Paleozoic

36

In what period did chordates appear

Cambrian

37

In what period did jawless fish arise

Ordovician

38

In what period did gnathostomes arise

Devonian

39

In what period tetrapods (amphibians) arise

Devonian

40

in what period did amniotes arise

Carbiniferous

41

in what period did mammals aris

Tertiary

42

In what period did teleost fish arise

Tetiary

43

In what period did birds arise

Tertiary

44

What was the age of the solid earth

4.6 bya, 0%

45

Age of fossil cells

3.5 bya, 24%

46

Age of photosynthesis

3.0bya, 35%

47

Age of metazoans

0.65 bya, 85.8%

48

Cephalochordates

0.52 bya, 88.7%

49

Vertebrates

0.52 bya, 88.7%

50

Homo sapiens age?

0.0002 bya, 99.956 %

51

What are two types of animals we can see in the fossil record

Dinosaurs and mammal-like reptiles

52

Bones & teeth, calcified cartilage and ligaments, and skin, feathers, and chemical residue are all types of fossil whats?

Remains

53

Footprints, burrows, feces (aka coprolites), and regurgitations and gut casts are all types of fossil whats?

Traces

54

What is the law of superposition

Sedimentary layers are deposited in time sequence, the oldest on the bottom and the youngest at the top

55

What are index fossils

Fossils that are used to date the strata they are in

56

Index fossils and the law of superposition are used in what kind of dating

relative dating

57

What is used for absolute dating

Radiometric dating

58

How do you do radiometric dating

Let a parent atom decay into its daughter products, calculate it's half life, and calculate the ratio of parent:daughters found in rock