Continuum of Anesthesia Flashcards Preview

Intro to Anesthesia > Continuum of Anesthesia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Continuum of Anesthesia Deck (19):
1

What is Anesthesia?

Loss of consciousness
Loss of memory
Loss of all senses
Immobility
Abolition of reflexes-somatic and automatic

2

What is the triad of Anesthesia?

Analgesia, Hypnosis, Muscle Relaxation

3

What is the Dyad of Regional Anesthesia?

Analgesia
Muscle Relaxation

4

What are medications used to accomplish Anesthesia?

Sedative-hypnotics:
Propofol
Etomidate
Ketamine
Benzodiazepines
Barbiturates
Anesthetic Gases:
Ensoflurane, Isoflurane, Halothane, Sevoflurane,
Desflurane

5

Do sedative-hypnotics have analgesic effects?

No, most do not

6

How do we accomplish pt immobility?

Muscle Relaxants (paralytics: depolarizers and non-depolarizers)

7

What are prerequisites to an anesthesia case?

ANESTHESIA PROVIDER, machines, monitors, suction, drugs (for case and resuscitation), A/W equipment

8

What are the steps for anesthesia recovery?

1. Turn off agents
2. Reverse relaxants
3. Ensure return of motor and sensory blockade
4. Remove airway (ETT, LMA, etc.)
5. Monitor in recovery area (e.g. ICU or PACU)

9

What are disadvantages of anesthesia?

Various systems effected (CV, Respiratory, etc.)
Allergic reactions
PONV
Pain and Awareness
Recovery varies for individuals

10

What is the Continuum of Anesthetic State?

Local Anesthesia
Regional Anesthesia
Minimal Sedation "Anxiolysis"
Moderate Sedation "Conscious Sedation"
Deep Sedation
General Anesthesia

11

Local Anesthesia

Anesthetic drug that can be injected into the tissue to numb a specific area

12

Regional Anesthesia

Anesthetic drug injection near a cluster of nerves that will numb an specific area
e.g. Epidurals, spinal, and peripheral nerve blocks

13

Minimal Sedation "Anxiolysis''

Drug that can help pt feel relaxed

Response: responds normally to verbal commands
Effects: Cognition and Coordination may be impaired

14

Moderate Sedation "Conscious Sedation"

Drug that helps pt to feel drowsy & pt may sleep through procedure w/ minimal memory of procedure

Response: responds purposefully to verbal commands either alone or by light tactile stimulation

15

Deep Sedation

Drug that causes pt to sleep through procedure w/ little memory of procedure

Response: Not easily aroused but may respond to repeated painful stimuli
*Independent ventilatory function and ability to maintain a patent airway may be impaired so supplemental O2 is given

16

General Anesthesia

Gases & vapors inhaled through breathing device or drugs given intravenously that render the patient unconscious

Response: unarousable
Effects: Requires assistance maintaining a patent airaway, PPV may be required, CV may be impaired

17

What is MAC?

Monitored Anesthesia Care (for simple procedures and minor surgeries)

sedative and other agents; dosage low enough that pt remains responsive and breathes without assistance

18

What is a combination technique?

MAC/sedation and local/regional anesthesia, regional and general anesthesia, etc.

19

What is general anesthesia w/ an ETT template?

1. Pre-op meds (Benzodiazepines, ABX)
2. Induction Drug (to induce)
3. Neuromuscular blockade (to facilitate intubation)
4. Inhalational Drugs (to maintain general anesthesia)
5. Opiods/local anesthetics (to minimize physiological
effects of pain and promote comfort at emergence)
6. Antiemetic (to prevent nausea which can be caused by opiods or inhalational agents)
7. Neuromuscular blockade reversal (reverse paralytic)