Control lecture 6: Functional organisation of the cerebral cortex Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Control lecture 6: Functional organisation of the cerebral cortex Deck (34):
1

Is the central sulcus continuous with the lateral sulcus?

No

2

What are the names of the sulci found within the temporal lobe?

Superior and inferior temporal sulci

3

What are the names of the gyri found within the temporal lobe?

Superior, middle and inferior gyri.

4

Where would you find the primary auditory cortex?

Superior temporal gyrus

5

What sulcus lies perpendicular to the parieto-occipital sulcus within the occipital lobe?

The calcarine sulcus.

6

What is the function of the gyri that lie either side of the calcarine sulcus?

Primary visual cortex.

7

Where are the cingulate sulcus and gyrus?

Above the corpus callosum running in the same shape.

8

What alternative name is given to the cingulate gyrus?

The limbic lobe

9

Where is the parahippocampal gyrus?

Caudal to the diencephalon.

10

What is the function of the hippocampus and where is it?

Memory.

Runs parallel to the parahippocampal gyrus deep within the temporal lobe.

11

Where is the connection between the cingulate gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus?

Posterior to the splenium of the corpus callosum - isthmus?

12

What is the cingulum?

A tract of association fibres running from the frontal lobe, through the parietal, connecting to the occipital and ending at the uncus of the temporal lobe - all via the cingulate gyrus.

13

What is the functional significance of the cingulum?

Transfers information from all lobes to the hippocampus - memory forming.

14

Where is the primary gustatory projection area?

Inferior post-central gyrus

15

Where is the primary olfactory projection area?

Uncus

16

What is the difference in blood supply between the medial part of a hemisphere and the lateral part of a hemisphere?

Medial - ACA
Lateral - MCA

17

Where would you find the ventral posterolateral (VPL) nucleus and ventral posteromedial (VMP) nucleus.

Thalamus

18

From where does the lateral VPL receive input?

Leg projects to midline.

19

From where does the medial VPL receive input?

Arm projects to lateral region

20

From where does the VMP receive input?

Face projects to lateral region

21

What is the function of secondary (association) sensory areas?

Recieves input from primary sensory area. Involved in interpretation/understanding.

22

What is the function of secondary (association) motor areas?

Sends output to primary motor area. Organises pattern of movement.

23

Where is the secondary general sensory (somaesthetic) area?

Superior parietal lobe

24

Where is the secondary visual area?

Pre-striate area

25

Where is the secondary auditory area?

Lateral fissure/superior temporal gyri

26

Where is the (secondary) premotor area?

Anterior to precentral sulcus on lateral surface

27

Where is the (secondary) supplementary motor area?

Anterior to precentral sulcus on medial surface

28

What does damage of secondary sensory areas lead to?

Disorders of understanding. Awareness of sensation still exists but significance of the sensation is lost.

29

What does damage of secondary motor areas lead to?

Inability to carry out purposeful movements, although there is no paralysis.

30

What are the functions of the parieto-temporal cortex?

- Integrates information of different modalities
- Involved in memory

31

What are the functions of the prefrontal cortex?

- Regulates moods and feelings
- Involved in higher order cognitive functions -conceptualisation, planning, judgement

32

What is cerebral dominance?

The lateralisation of function - usually associated with handedness i.e. right handed people are left hemisphere dominant. Auditory association areas are found in the dominant hemisphere. The non-dominant hemisphere is usually associated with spatial awareness.

33

What is Broca's area and what happens when it is damaged?

Anterior auditory association area - motor or expressive (production of speech). Damage results in expressive aphasia.

34

What is Wernicke's area and what happens when it is damaged?

Posterior auditory association area - sensory or receptive (understanding of speech). Damage results in receptive aphasia.