Control of blood water potential-structure of the nephron Flashcards Preview

Biology: topic 16 > Control of blood water potential-structure of the nephron > Flashcards

Flashcards in Control of blood water potential-structure of the nephron Deck (21):
1

What is the structure of the mammalian kidney?

-in mammals there are two kidneys found at the back of the abdominal cavity, one each side of the spinal cord

2

What is a kidney made up of?

-the fibrous capsule
-the cortex
-the medulla
-the renal pelvis
-the ureter
-the renal artery
-the renal vein

3

What is a fibrous capsule?

-an outer membrane that protects the kidney

4

What is a cortex?

-a lighter coloured outer region made up of renal (bowman's) capsules, convoluted tubules and blood vessels

5

What is a medulla?

-a darker coloured inner region made up of loops or Henle, collecting ducts and blood vessels

6

What is a renal pelvis?

-a funnel shaped cavity that collects urine into the ureter

7

What is a ureter?

-a tube that carries urine into the bladder

8

What is a renal artery?

-supplies the kidney with blood from the heart via the aorta

9

What is a renal vein?

-returned blood to the heart via the vena cave

10

What are nephrons?

-tubular structures
-narrow
-closed at one end
-two twisted regions separated by a long hairpin loop

11

What is each nephron made up of?

-bowman's capsule
-proximal tubule
-loop of Henle
-distal tubule
-collecting duct

12

What is renal bowman's capsule?

-surrounds the glomerulus
-layer of podocytes

13

What is proximal convoluted tubule?

-a series of loops surrounded by blood capillaries
-its walls are made of epithelial cells which have microvilli

14

What is a loop of Henley?

-a long hairpin loop that extends from the cortex into the medulla of the kidney and back again
-it is surrounded b blood capillaries

15

What is distal convoluted tubule?

-a series of loops surrounded by blood capillaries
-its walls are made of epithelial cells, but it s surrounded by fewer capillaries than the proximal tubule

16

What is the collecting duct?

-a tube into which a number of distal convoluted tumbles from a number of nephrons empty
-it is lined by epithelial cells and becomes increasingly wide as it emptied into the pelvis of the kidney

17

Which blood vessels are associated with each nephron?

-affront arterial
-glomerulus
-efferent arterial
-blood capillaries

18

What is affront arterial?

-a tiny vessel that ultimately arises from the renal artery and supplies the nephron with blood
-the afferent arteriole enters the renal capsule of the nephron where it forms the glomerulus

19

What is glomerulus?

-a many branched knot of capillaries from which fluid is forced out of the blood
-the glomerular capillaries recombine to form the efferent arterial
-in mammals the glomerulus is the only capillary bed in which an arterials (the afferent arterial) supplies it with blood and an arterial (the efferent arterial) also drains blood away
-in all other mammalian capillary beds it is a venule that drains away the blood

20

What is efferent arteriole?

-a tiny vessel that leaves the renal capsule
-it has a smaller diameter than the affront arterial and so causes an increase in blood pressure within the glomerulus
-carries blood away from the renal capsule and later branches to form the blood capillaries

21

What are blood capillaries?

-a network of capillaries that surrounds the proximal convoluted tubule, the loop of Henle and the distal convoluted tubule and from where they reabsorb mineral salts, glucose and water