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Flashcards in Correlations Boxes Deck (16):

How do the kidneys regulate the pH of blood?

The kidneys remove H+ ions from the blood in the form of ammonium (NH4+) and reabsorb bicarbonate (HCO3-)
Low pH triggers an increase in the removal of protons and the reabsorption of bicarbonate. When the pH of the blood is too high, fewer protons are removed and less bicarbonate is reabsorbed.


Where is the gastric proton pump (H+/K+ ATPase) located?

It is located in the parietal cells of the gastric lumen and pumps protons into the gastric lumen. Inhibition can lead to hypochlorhydria which can lead to a decrease in the absorption of nutrients.


What is a common chelator?

EDTA inhibits metalloenzymes


What does lead (Pb) inhibit?

lead inhibits gamma-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase and ferrochelatase (enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of heme)


Troponin and MI

Troponin levels (cTn-I) increase in serum levels after MI


Where is phosphatidylserine (PS) found in healthy cells and where is it found in dying cells and why?

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is usually found in the lipid bylayer, but when cells are dying, it is displayed on the extracellular surface as a label for removal by phagocytes.


Niemann-Pick disease

Disease caused by a defiency in sphingomyelinase, the enzyme that breaks down sphingomyelin. Sphingomyelin accumulates in the liver, spleen, CNS, and bone marrow. Spleen and liver enlargement and "Cherry red spot in the eye" death usually by 18 mo


Which blood type is universal donor



Which blood type is universal recipient



Spur cell anemia

type of hemolytic anemia, where too much cholesterol get into the erythrocyte membrane, which decreases the fluidity and flexibility of the membrane and causes the cells to rupture in the capillaries of the spleen.


Ligand gated ion channels

binding of a ligand allows for rapid transport of ions down their concentration gradient.


Voltage gated ion channels

open in response to changes in the membrane potential. electrical voltage across the membrane is caused by the large excess of negative charge inside the cell


Defective amino acid transporter leads to cystinuria

defective AA transport system responsible for uptake of dimeric amino acid cystine and dibasic AAs Arg, Lys, and ornathine. *cystine crystals and kidney stones


Hartnup Disease

Defective AA transporter for nonpolar of neutral amino acids (e.g. tryptophan), primarily found in the kidneys and intestine.


Cardiotonic drugs

cardiac glycosides like ouabainand dioxin inhibit Na/K+ ATPase pump on cardiac myocyte plasma membranes. Increase in intracellular Na+ and a secondary increase in intracellular Ca+ which leads to a stronger contraction of the heart muscle.


What leads to cystic fibrosis

A defective Cl- transport. Defect in the CFTR transport gene which causes a buildup of Cl- and salt in the airway epithelial cells and in the sweat. water leaves the mucous and is a cause for bacterial infections.