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Flashcards in Cortical Lesions Deck (17)
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1

Role of Frontal Lobe in human cognition

  • voluntary movement
  • language fluency (left)
  • motor prosody (right)
  • comportment
  • executive fxn
  • motivation

2

Role of Parietal Lobe in human cognition

  • tactile sensation
  • visuospatial function (right)
  • attention (right)
  • reading (left)
  • writing (left)
  • calculation (left)

3

Role of Temporal Lobe in human cognition

  • language comprehension (left)
  • sensory prosody (right)
  • memory
  • emotion

4

Role of Occipital Lobe in human cognition

  • vision
  • visual perception
  • visual recognition

5

Major frontal lobe syndromes

  • Broca's aphasia
  • orbitofrontal lesions ==> disinhibition
  • dorsolateral preforntal lesions ==> executive dysfxn
  • medial frontal lesions ==> apathy

6

Characteristics of disinhibition

  • due to orbitofrontal lesions
  • = disorder of comportment/innapropriate behavior
  • variety of sx:
  • irritability
  • loss of empathy
  • impuslivity
  • hypersexuality
  • hyperphagia
  • violence

7

Characteristics of executive dysfunction

  • due to dorsolateral prefrontal lesions
  •  = dysfxn in capacity to plan, carry out, and monitor a sequentioal goal-directed action

8

Characteristics of apathy

  • due to medial frontal lesions
  • = loss of motivation/erosion of initiative

9

Temporal lobe syndromes

  • Wernicke's aphasia
  • sensory aprosody
  • amnesia
  • emotional disorders

10

Characteristics of Wernicke's aphasia

  • due to lesion @ posterior region of left superior temporal gyrus
  • auditory comprehension of language is impaired

11

Characteristics of amnesia

  • due to hippocampal lesion
  • amnesia = new learning deficit = inability to encode new memories

12

Characteristics of motor/sensory aprosody

  • motor = inability add emotional inflection to speech
    • right hemispheric "Broca's area" @ frontal lobe
  • sensory = inability to understand emotional inflection in speech
    • right hemispheric "Wernicke's area" @ temporal lboe

13

Characteristics of emotional dysfxn

  • limbic system = influences basic emotions; e.g. fight or flight, feeding, sexuality
    • interconnected structures w/in temporal lobe and diencephalon
  • temporolimbic lesions ==>
    • Temporal lobe epilepsy
    • lasting personality changes, deepened emotionality, hypergraphia

14

Characteristics of hemineglect

  • due to parietal lesions
  • = failure to report, respond to, or orient sensory stimuli
  • more common after right hemisphere lesions (dominant for attention) ==> inattention to one side of body or extrapersonal space 

15

Major occipital lobe syndromes

  • visual agnosia
  • visual field deficit

16

Characteristics of visual field deficits

  • due to an occipital lesion
  • = absence of vision

17

Characteristics of visual agnosia

  • due to a variety of occipital lesions leading to damage @ the occipitotemporal ("what" stream) or occipitoparietal ("where" strem)
  • = visual image is seen normally, but is not adequately reconized
  • e.g. object agnosia, face agnosia, etc.