What does covalent bonding occur between?
How is the bond formed between the non-metal atoms?
By the sharing of valence electrons
What is a covalent bond?
A shared pair of electrons between two non-metal atoms
What are the names of the two structures that covalently bonded non-metals can exist as?
simple covalent molecule and giant covalent crystal (macromolecule)
Draw a dot and cross diagram for methane (CH4)
How are covalent bonds held together?
Due to the electrostatic forces of attraction between the nuclie and the shared electrons within the molecule.
How many electrons are shared in a double bond?
How would you reperesent the double bond on an oxygen molecule?
Why do simple covalent molecules have low boiling points?
Because there are only strong covalent bond inside of the molecules and weak inter-molecular attraction between the molecules. The inter-molecular attraction is easy to overcome; and so does not require a lot of energy
Why are simple covalent molecules poor conductors of electricity?
The molecules are overall neutral and so there are no charged particles to carry the electrical current.
What is another word for co-ordinate bonding?
Dative covalent bonding
What is co-ordinate bonding?
a covalent bond in which both electrons come from the same atom.
In a co-ordinate bond why is one of the atoms electron-deficient?
It is the atom that accepts the electron pair as it does not have a filled outer main level of electrons
Why does one of the atoms in a co-ordinate bond donate a pair of electrons?
It has a pair of electrons that is not being used in a bond.
What is the name given to a pair of electrons that is not being used in a bond?
A lone pair
How would you represent that a co-ordinate bond has been made on a dot and cross diagram?
By an arrow that points towards atom that is accepting the electron pair.
Co-ordinate bonds explained
covalent bonds explained