CP64 - Disease of the Head and Neck Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CP64 - Disease of the Head and Neck Deck (43):
1

which type of carcinoma account for the majority of oral cavity?

squamous cell carcinoma

2

where within the oral cavity have the highest frequencies of carcinoma?

floor of the mouth, ventrolateral tongue, retromolar region, lower lip, soft palate and gingiva

3

what are the strongest risk factors for carcinomas of the oral cavity?

tobacco and alcohol abuse

4

which virus can cause oral cavity carcinoma?

HPV

5

what are some dietary risk factors for oral cavity carcinoma?

fruit hight in Vit A & C - protective against oral neoplasia

meat and red chilli powder - risk factors

6

how is carcinoma of the oral cavity spread?

almost always through the tumour embolism

7

where is the common local metastasis of oral cavity carcinoma?

cervical lymph node

8

where is the common distant metastasis of oral cavity carcinoma?

mediastinal lymph nodes, lungs, liver, bone

9

what are some of the pre-cancerous lesions for carcinoma of the oral cavity

submucous fibrosis, actinic keratosis, lichen planus, leukoplakia, erythroplakia, chronic hyperplastic candidosis

10

what is the most common larynx carcinoma

squamous cell carcinoma

11

how is larynx carcinoma treated?

total laryngectomy

12

what are some of the major risk factor for larynx carcinoma?

smoking & alcohol, HPV

dietary - low in green leafy veg and rich in salt preserved meats and dietary fats

Exposure to paint, diesel and gasoline fumes, asbestos

laryngopharyngeal reflux

13

what is lichen planus

non-infectious inflammatory disease characterised by polygonal,itchy papules.

mostly affect the muco-cutaneous layer.

14

what are some of the clinical conditions for Lichen planus

cutaneous lesion - itchy, purple, papules forming plaques with Wickham's striae

Oral Lesions - reticular striations, plaque-like, erosive, ulcerative lesions,

small risk of malignant transformation

15

what are vocal cord nodules and polyps

nodules and polyps present on the vocal cord

16

who is likely to be affected by vocal cord nodules and polyps

heavy smokers, individuals who impose great strain on their vocal cords eg singers

17

what are some of the clinical symptoms for vocal cord nodules and polyps

most commonly associated with a voice change

18

what can cause nasal polyps

recurrent attacks of rhinitis (infection of the inside of the nose) can eventually lead to focal protrusions of the mucosa

19

what complication can nasal polyps cause?

blockage of the airway and impede sinus drainage

20

what is sinusitis?

inflammation of the air sinuses within the skull

21

what can cause sinusitis?

Acute sinusitis usually proceeded by acute or chronic rhinitis

22

what can periapical infection from an upper tooth cause?

maxillary sinusitis - through the antral floor

23

what can acute sinusitis lead to?

chronic sinusitis (as a result of the inflammatory oedema of the mucosa)

24

what are the micro-organisms which can cause sinusitis?

= mixed microbial flora usually inhabitants of the oral cavity, severe forms may be caused by fungi e.g. mucomycosis esp in diabetics

25

what are some of the complications for sinusitis?

potential of spread into the orbit or into the enclosing bone producing cranial osteomylitis, meningitis or cerebral abscess – very rare!

26

what does cholesteatoma affect?

middle ear and/or mastoid process - collection of squamous cells in the middle ear

27

what is otitis media

infection of the middle ear

28

what are some of the symptoms of otitis media

often viral and associated with generalised URT symptoms

29

what are the causative agents for otitis media?

Streptococcus pneumoniae, H. influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis

30

what are the causative agent of chronic otitis media?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus or fungal

31

what are some of the potential complications?

perforation of eardrum Aural polyps, cholesteatoma
Destructive necrotising otitis consequence of otitis media in a diabetic person especially when P. aeruginosa is the causative organism

32

what is cholesteatoma?

association with otitis media

33

what is potential complication of cholesteatoma?

Progressive enlargement may lead to erosion of ossicles, the labyrinth (dizziness) and adjacent bone or the surrounding soft tissue

hearing loss

very rarely CNS complications - brain abscess and meningitis

34

what is otosclerosis?

abnormal bone deposition in the middle ear - usually bilateral

35

what are some of the outcome of otosclerosis

Process is slowly progressive eventually leading to marked hearing loss

36

what is labyrinthitis?

Inflammatory disorder of the inner ear or labyrinth

37

what are some of the complications for labyrinthitis

disturbances of balance and hearing

38

what can cause labyrinthitis

bacterial/viral - acute inflammation

autoimmune

39

what are the 2 types of carcinoma common in the external ear?

BCC & SCC - tend to occur in elderly men and are associated with actinic radiation

40

what is the carcinoma common in the ear canal?

SCC - middle-aged to elderly women

41

what is paragangliomas?

rare neuroendocrine neoplasm that may develop at various body sites , mostly benign

42

what is the most common tumour of the middle ear?

paraganglioma

43

what are the clinical symptoms for paragangliomas?

pulsatile tinnitus, hearing loss, aural pressure/fullness, dizziness, otalgia, and bloody otorrhea