Flashcards in CP64 - Disease of the Head and Neck Deck (43):
which type of carcinoma account for the majority of oral cavity?
squamous cell carcinoma
where within the oral cavity have the highest frequencies of carcinoma?
floor of the mouth, ventrolateral tongue, retromolar region, lower lip, soft palate and gingiva
what are the strongest risk factors for carcinomas of the oral cavity?
tobacco and alcohol abuse
which virus can cause oral cavity carcinoma?
what are some dietary risk factors for oral cavity carcinoma?
fruit hight in Vit A & C - protective against oral neoplasia
meat and red chilli powder - risk factors
how is carcinoma of the oral cavity spread?
almost always through the tumour embolism
where is the common local metastasis of oral cavity carcinoma?
cervical lymph node
where is the common distant metastasis of oral cavity carcinoma?
mediastinal lymph nodes, lungs, liver, bone
what are some of the pre-cancerous lesions for carcinoma of the oral cavity
submucous fibrosis, actinic keratosis, lichen planus, leukoplakia, erythroplakia, chronic hyperplastic candidosis
what is the most common larynx carcinoma
squamous cell carcinoma
how is larynx carcinoma treated?
what are some of the major risk factor for larynx carcinoma?
smoking & alcohol, HPV
dietary - low in green leafy veg and rich in salt preserved meats and dietary fats
Exposure to paint, diesel and gasoline fumes, asbestos
what is lichen planus
non-infectious inflammatory disease characterised by polygonal,itchy papules.
mostly affect the muco-cutaneous layer.
what are some of the clinical conditions for Lichen planus
cutaneous lesion - itchy, purple, papules forming plaques with Wickham's striae
Oral Lesions - reticular striations, plaque-like, erosive, ulcerative lesions,
small risk of malignant transformation
what are vocal cord nodules and polyps
nodules and polyps present on the vocal cord
who is likely to be affected by vocal cord nodules and polyps
heavy smokers, individuals who impose great strain on their vocal cords eg singers
what are some of the clinical symptoms for vocal cord nodules and polyps
most commonly associated with a voice change
what can cause nasal polyps
recurrent attacks of rhinitis (infection of the inside of the nose) can eventually lead to focal protrusions of the mucosa
what complication can nasal polyps cause?
blockage of the airway and impede sinus drainage
what is sinusitis?
inflammation of the air sinuses within the skull
what can cause sinusitis?
Acute sinusitis usually proceeded by acute or chronic rhinitis
what can periapical infection from an upper tooth cause?
maxillary sinusitis - through the antral floor
what can acute sinusitis lead to?
chronic sinusitis (as a result of the inflammatory oedema of the mucosa)
what are the micro-organisms which can cause sinusitis?
= mixed microbial flora usually inhabitants of the oral cavity, severe forms may be caused by fungi e.g. mucomycosis esp in diabetics
what are some of the complications for sinusitis?
potential of spread into the orbit or into the enclosing bone producing cranial osteomylitis, meningitis or cerebral abscess – very rare!
what does cholesteatoma affect?
middle ear and/or mastoid process - collection of squamous cells in the middle ear
what is otitis media
infection of the middle ear
what are some of the symptoms of otitis media
often viral and associated with generalised URT symptoms
what are the causative agents for otitis media?
Streptococcus pneumoniae, H. influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis
what are the causative agent of chronic otitis media?
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus or fungal
what are some of the potential complications?
perforation of eardrum Aural polyps, cholesteatoma
Destructive necrotising otitis consequence of otitis media in a diabetic person especially when P. aeruginosa is the causative organism
what is cholesteatoma?
association with otitis media
what is potential complication of cholesteatoma?
Progressive enlargement may lead to erosion of ossicles, the labyrinth (dizziness) and adjacent bone or the surrounding soft tissue
very rarely CNS complications - brain abscess and meningitis
what is otosclerosis?
abnormal bone deposition in the middle ear - usually bilateral
what are some of the outcome of otosclerosis
Process is slowly progressive eventually leading to marked hearing loss
what is labyrinthitis?
Inflammatory disorder of the inner ear or labyrinth
what are some of the complications for labyrinthitis
disturbances of balance and hearing
what can cause labyrinthitis
bacterial/viral - acute inflammation
what are the 2 types of carcinoma common in the external ear?
BCC & SCC - tend to occur in elderly men and are associated with actinic radiation
what is the carcinoma common in the ear canal?
SCC - middle-aged to elderly women
what is paragangliomas?
rare neuroendocrine neoplasm that may develop at various body sites , mostly benign
what is the most common tumour of the middle ear?