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Flashcards in Criminal Investigations Deck (170):
1

Why are the lines between the romance of crime solving and the reality sometimes blurred?

the process has intrigued people for generations and is the subject of many works of art.

2

How have the roots of historical CJ system impacted modern system of criminal investigation?

it originated in England with the Bow Street Runners and later London Metro Police. History in the U.S. includes Pinkerton Agency and the F.B.I.

3

What were some of the early advancements in forensic science?

serology (study of plasma fluids)
forensic dentistry
ballistics

4

coordination with prosecutor
expand role of patrol officer
use of fingerprints should be expanded
distinguish between cases that require more specialized investigation

RAND study



5

detectives and patrol contribute equally to solving burglary and robbery cases
a period of four hours total is all that is needed to close a case75% of burglary cases are suspended after two days due to a lack of leads
personnel are too reliant on victim information

PERF study

6

Determine whether a crime has been committed
Gather information
identify MO
make an arrest if necessary
follow up on case afterwords

responsibilities of a successful investigator

7

May initiate the case by calling for specialized units
Initiate and complete the investigations of certain classes of crime
investigate high-volume crimes
assume initial responsibilities aid victims, evaluate scene, identify witnesses, suspects, evidence, protect the scene

role of a patrol officer in the investigative process

8

Thief catchers

persons recruited from criminal classes to aid law enforcement officials in locating suspects during Europe's industrial revolution.

9

Bow Street Runners

Mr. Fielding's People, the first well known investigative body in England, successful group of thief catchers

10

Bertillon System

a method of identification developed in Paris based on measurements such as skeletal size, ear shape, eye color

11

inductive reasoning

make an inference based on facts, takes us beyond what we know

12

deductive reasoning

based on specific facts used to establish proof

13

abduction

process of proposing a likely explanation for an event that can be tested, guides the accumulation of knowledge during the investigation

14

solvability factors

characteristics of case that demonstrate it is likely to result in case solution

15

relational databases

permit fast and easy sorting of large records

16

serology

procedure established to study and distinguish human blood stains

17

rouges' gallery

compilation of descriptions, MO, hide outs, and associates of known criminals

18

field notes

document information as it is learned

19

Field Interview Cards

used to document interactions with a suspicious person

20

markers

call attention to an item at a crime scene and in a scene photograph

21

photos at a scene include at least what three views?

general, medium, close

22

what is the objective of the crime scene sketch?

to accurately portray the scene

23

1. Baseline
2. Triangulation
3. Cross Projection

the three standard crime scene sketching methods

24

'preliminary investigation

an initial inquiry by officers to establish facts of a suspected crime and to preserve any evidence related to that crime

25

crime scene

not only the location where the offense occurred, but any place where evidence may be discovered

26

Locard Exchange Principle

with contact between two items there will be an exchange

27

trace evidence

small bits of matter left behind

28

corpus delicti

the evidence that establishes that a crime has been committed

29

associative evidence

links a suspect with a crime

30

Flash description

A BOLO message

31

Latent evidence

Evidence not visible to the human eye

32

what should officers en route be aware of?

fleeing suspects on foot or in vehicles

33

1. be aware while en route
2. verify a crime occurred
3. administer aid
4. arrest suspect
5. inform supervisor

duties of the first officer on scene

34

1. Determine the facts of the crime
2. identify the suspect
3. aid in suspect's arrest
4. aid in prosecution

four objectives of evidence

35

Chain of custody

the accounting of evidence

36

crime scene report

a record of what was done at the scene to find evidence and reconstruct what happened

37

Amido black protein

an amino acid staining dye used to detect blood present with latent finger prints

38

Latent fingerprint

Also called a patent print. Made when oils transfer the pattern to a touched object

39

Plastic fingerprint

An impression, made when a material is touchednd a negative pattern left

40

Visible or dust print

When a material is touched and then left behind on a second object, after touching substances like oil, blood, flour, or ink

41

Criminal Investigative Analysis

profiling, identifying psychological characteristics surrounding the crime

42

Geoprofile

a three dimensional probability surface which depicts the offender's most likely area of residence

43

Lineup

a witness is simultaneous with a number of individuals to identify

44

Relative judgement

Compare lineup photographs members with each other rather than to the memory of the offender

45

Absolute judgment

Witnesses compare the photograph only with their memory of what the offender actually looked like

46

trace evidence unit

identifies and compares types of trace materials including hair, textiles fibers,

47

the questioned document unit

examines and compares paper and surfaces including handwriting, printing, alterations

48

forensic chemistry

identifying chemicals, controlled substances, ink

49

toxicology

the examination of biological specimens

50

how long as fingerprinting been sued for crime fighting?

hundreds of years

51

1. arches
2. wohls
3. loops

three general pattern groups of fingerprints

52

powder
iodine
nitrate
superglue fuming
lasers

methods to identify fingerprints

53

DNA was first discovered when?

by scientists in the 1980s

54

cases involving questioned comments require what to compare handwriting?

a suspect document and an exemplar

55

is the use of eye witnesses a problem?

yes, over reliance causes false convictions

56

1. Photo line-up
2. line up
3. show up

three identification procedures

57

probable cause

min amount of information necessary to make a reasonable person believe that a crime has been committed by a person who is about to be arrested

58

exclusionary rule

any evidence illegally attained will be excluded

59

the fourth amendment protects _________

people with a legitimate expectation of privacy

60

Mapp v. Ohio, 1961

applied the exclusionary rule to federal and state courts

61

Chimel v. California, 1969

limited search incident to arrest to the immediate area

62

affidavit

presentation of facts which are believed to constitute probable cause

63

search warrant return

an itemized inventory of items seized

64

Triggering conditions

A part of an anticipatory search warrant, a specific event that starts the validity of the warrant

65

Consent searches
Existent circumstances
Incident to lawful arrest
Plain view vehicle
Stop and frisk
Open field

Exceptions to search warrant requirements

66

Under the U.S. Constitution citizens are guaranteed three classes of rights

1. Privileges and immunities
2. Due process of law
3. Equal protection

67

the ____________ requirement is at the heart of a police officer's legal ability to search

probable cause

68

Issued by proper official
issued for specific objects and places
issued on a basis of probable cause

specific requirements for a warrant to be valid

69

Graham v. Conner

federal standard of reasonableness in use of force cases

70

physical force can be used to:

protect the officer or others
overcome resistance
prevent escape

71

what makes force reasonable

at the time a reasonable officer with the same facts would have acted in the same manner

72

severity of crime
suspect posed an immediate threat
actively resisted or attempted to evade arrest

key factors to determine reasonableness under graham

73

Maximization

Exaggeration of evidence available telling the person that interrogator where she is guilty stressing the consequences of crime

74

Coerced internalization

The technique of Maximization can lead to false confessions this occurs mostly in a highly suggestible and confused suspects who actually begin to believe that they're guilty of the crime

75

Admission

And incriminating statement that stops short of admitting guilt in the actual crime

76

Confession

A direct acknowledgment by the suspect of his or her guilt in the commission of a specific crime or as being an integral part of a specific crime

77

Think aloud interview and verbal probing techniques

Two major subtypes of cognitive interviewing

78

Interview

A relatively formal conversation conducted for the purpose of obtaining information

79

Interrogation

The systematic questioning of a person suspected of involvement in a crime for the purpose of obtaining a confession

80

A key psychological factor contributing to successful interrogations is

Privacy

81

Coerced compliant confessions

Fear tactics that include direct threats intimidation or actual physical abuse

82

Overt information gathering

Personal interactions with witnesses suspects victims, usually done by the patrol division

83

Covert intelligence gathering

Most common clues process of intelligence gathering

84

Strategic intelligence

Provides investigator with information for long term planning, info about suspects capabilities and intentions

85

Tactical intelligence

Targets activity of immediate importance to the investigator specifics about organizations and individuals

86

Target selection
Data collection
Data analysis
Dissemination

Phases of intelligence gathering

87

Collation

The process of comparing texts carefully

88

Link analysis

A charting technique to show relationships between individuals and organizations using graphics

89

Event flow analysis

Charting a brief description of an event

90

Commodity flow analysis

Charting the logical flow of goods

91

RISS projects

Six regional information sharing networks, Rocky Mountain information network

92

Outside team

In a stake out the team of two or more officers designated as the arrest team

93

Inside team

This team watches the inside of the stakeout location they also brief other officers and secure the location after

94

Minimization requirement pertinent to electronic surveillance

Refers to the requirement that officers take every reasonable effort to monitor only those conversations that are relevant

95

Explain the difference between criminal intelligence gathering and criminal investigation

Intelligence is defined as knowledge of past present or future criminal activity that results from the collection of information that when evaluated provides the user with a basis for rational decision-making criminal investigations or reactive in nature intelligence gathering is a proactive function

96

Two pronged Aguilar test

Source of information is clear
Reasonable belief information is reliable
Then it can provide PC

97

Scene conscious

Become aware of the situation and be prepared to take immediate action to preserve and document evidence

98

Accidental death
Natural death
Suicide
Murder

Four modes of death

99

What are the two categories of homicide?

Murder: purposeful unlawful killing
Manslaughter: deliberate killing involuntary or voluntary

100

Tattooing

Pinpoint hemorrhages resulted from the discharge of un burned powder being deposited into the skin.

101

Serial murder

Separate victims with a break go two days at least between the killings

102

Mass murder

Four or more murders in a single incident

103

Dying declaration

A statement made by the victim under the belief of eminent death regarding the manner of their death typically implicating a suspect

104

Commercial robbery

Typically occurs at the end of the work week and during the evening and very early morning hours to go to target to the commercial Robert our stores and businesses located close to major thoroughfares especially banks and convenience stores

105

Bank robbery

Represents a much greater property loss and other types of robbery but accounts for only 2% of all robberies

106

Street robbery

The most common type of robbery also called mugging

107

Residential robbery

Consider whether the most terrifying types of robberies because an armed intruder will break into a home and hold residents a gun or knife point often these begin his burglaries but convert to robberies of injury discovers that there someone home and chooses to use violence as a means of completing the theft

108

Professional Robber
opportunistic robber
Drug addict robber
alcoholic robber

Conklyns well-known typology of robbers

109

Binding material

Any material including strips of tape cloth strips wire rope used to incapacitate the victim

110

Robbery motivation

Primary motivation is greed although some juvenile robbers motivated by peer influence and thrills

111

Vehicle robbery

Becoming more common also include delivery vehicles taxicabs and buses

112

Initial responsibility of first officers on scene

Arrived quickly and safely summon assistance wait for back up before entering cover the likely exit

113

What is the most common type of robbery and the most commonplace of robbery

The most common type is of the individual most common place is on the way to and from your car

114

Power reassurance rapist

Primary motivation of power over his victim accounting for estimated 81 percent of rapes the reported

115

Power assertive rapist

When estimated 12% of rape attacks involves the assertive personality it is the desire of the suspect to demonstrate his manhood to the victim through sexual salt seldom plans as a tax and is opportunistic by nature

116

Anger retaliatory rapist

Person who Vinces anger and frustration for the opposite sex by punishing them this category of rapist accounts for an estimated 5% of all rapes

117

Anger excitation rapist

This type is the most dangerous has a strong propensity toward sadism prone to severely injured or murder his victims enjoys the victims response to the infliction of pain meticulously plans attack

118

What is simple assault

Generally threats by one person to cause bodily harm or death to another

119

Nonfamily abduction

A child is removed without authorization from his or her family by force or trickery it is the most complex and dangerous type of missing child case

120

Family abduction

Generally occurs in conjunction with divorce and separation the noncustodial parent remove the child from the care of the custodial parent and flees

121

Runaway

The third type of missing child case encountered by law enforcement voluntary runaway child is the most common

122

Code Adam

A lockdown and response procedure at public buildings places and stores for rent reduction of a missing child

123

Acute maltreatment

The child's death is directly related to injuries suffered as a result of a specific incident

124

Chronic maltreatment

The child stuff is record related to injuries caused by neglect occurring over extended period of time

125

Battered Child syndrome

Defined as the collection of injuries sustained by a child as a result of repeated mistreatment or beating

126

Munchhausen syndrome by proxy

Psychological disorder in which a patient fabricates symptoms of disease or injury and ordered under the medical test hospitalization and surgical treatment by proxy is medical attention to themselves by inducing illnesses in their children

127

Sudden infant death syndrome

Diagnosis given for the sudden death of an infant one month to one years of age that remains unexplained after complete investigation including an autopsy examination of the scene and review of the victims medical family history

128

Situational molester

Does not necessarily suffer from any specified psychological disorder but may commit such crimes because one of several external factors these include intoxication drug abuse mood or mental conditions or other social conditions

129

Preferential molester

Has sexual desires focusing on children typically has a more identifiable psychological disorder

130

fixated child molester

One who's primary sexual orientations toward children and whose social sexual maturation develops as a result of unresolved conflicts in his or her development children of always been the focus of sexual interest this molester will probably not be a stranger to the victim

131

The regressed child molester

Represents a clear departure from the primary orientation toward age mates the child becomes a substitute for an adult partner

132

Battered Child syndrome

Collection of injury sustained by child as a result of repeated mistreatment or beating

133

Retinal hemorrhaging in infants

For all practical purposes is conclusive evidence of shaken baby syndrome especially the absence of a good explanation

134

Exploitation

The use of children for illegal activities such as prostitution and pornography

135

Incest

Sexual relations between children and their parents or other relatives

136

Child sexual abuse

The sexual molestation of children as well as seduction and statutory rape

137

Child molester

A significantly older person who engages in any type of sexual activity with individuals legally defined as children

138

Fungible goods

Items such as tools liquor clothing that are indistinguishable from others like them

139

Check kiting

Use a fictitious checks drawn on nonexistent firm or person

140

Pilferage

Stealing merchandise by the company's employees

141

Plastic workers

Professional criminals have experience in dealing with stolen credit cards

142

Snitches

Amateur pilfers respectable person who do not perceive themselves as thieves that are systematic shoplifters you still merchandise for their own use

143

Booster

An individual operating as part of an organized criminal gang committing organized theft

144

Tin truck

Stolen auto parts transport vehicle

145

Salvage switch

Thief
Urchins a wrecked vehicle for its title and vin

146

Aggravated arson

Deliberate burning of property while creating an imminent danger to human life

147

Simple arson

A lesser offense burning a property that does not result in a risk to human life

148

A fire's point of origin

Maybe the most critical phase of arson investigation because it includes the ruling out of natural or accidental causes finding out the point where the fire started

149

Time span of the fire

Physical characteristics of the fire such a smoke direction flames distance of travel

150

Arson plants

Preparations used to set the fire these include newspapers rags other flammable waste material

151

Arson trailers

Materials used in spreading the fire including gunpowder racks moved from the liquid and also for mobile liquid spread out the same such as gasoline kerosene alcohol

152

Alligatoring

The first of the pattern of crevices form of the burning of a wooden structure resembling the skin of an alligator this pattern reveals a minimal amount of time with alligator in large segments when the fires extinguished rapidly as a fire continues to burn the alley getting will become smaller with charring becoming deeper

153

Arson for profit for revenge for vandalism for crime concealment pyromania

Motivations of the arsonist

154

Fire triangle

Heat fuel oxygen

155

Islamism

Set of ideologies holding Islam is not only religion but also political system in the modern Muslims must return to the roots of the religion and unite politically

156

Evidence of participation exclusive access motive false statements

Evidence usually needed in arson cases for successful prosecution

157

Define terrorism

Premeditated politically motivated violent action that targets noncombatants

158

Mara salvTrucha

El Salvadorian gang ms 13

159

Dependence factor

Drugs level of depends the fuel so users desire to consume more of a physiological dependence psychological dependence withdrawal symptoms and Drug synergy

160

Designer drugs

Class of drugs that are specifically designed to emulate controlled substances such as ecstasy

161

Pharmaceutical diversion

Taking medications legal Manufacturing for illegitimate means

162

Scammers

Professional patients those who fraudulently attempt to obtain prescriptions for controlled drugs from doctors

163

Bank methods

This basic technique the traffickers take their money to a bank conduct several transactions that of altering currency of small denominations for larger ones

164

Smurfing

Trafficker provide several individuals or Smurfs with cash from drug sales each Smurf goes to a different banks and purchases cashiers checks in denominations of less than $10,000 the Smurfs then turn the chats over the second person who facilitates their deposit into domestic bank

165

Computer scanning

Process of presenting sequentially changing information to an automated system to identify those items receiving a positive response

166

Masquerading

One person assuming identity of an authorized computer user

167

Data diddling

Changing data before during or input computers

168

Trojan horse

Secret placement or alteration of computer instructions of the computer will tell a second computer how to perform an illegal function

169

Treasury Department currency transaction report

Require that banks report cash transactions of 10,000 or more

170

Double invoicing

A company orders merchandise from a foreign subsidiary at an inflated price