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Flashcards in Critical Thinking - Reasoning Deck (105)
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1

Uncritical Thinking

Automatically
believing what you
read or are told
without pausing to
ask whether it is
accurate, true or
reasonable

2

Critical Thinking

Setting out actively
to understand what
is really going on
by using reasoning,
evaluating evidence
and thinking
carefully about the
process of thinking
itself

3

Skepticism

Not
automatically
accepting something
you hear, read or see
as true

4

Objectivity

Setting aside our own
immediate feelings and
preferences, and trying
to identify the relevant
facts of a situation as
seen from the outside,
rather than relying only
on your own – or
someone else’s
– particular feelings or

point of view.

5

Bias

Approaching
something in a
one-sided way that
creates a distorted
account of the way
things actually are.
Looking at things in a
way that is entirely
dominated by a
particular prejudice
or perspective.

6

Conscious Bias

When someone
deliberately presents
a one-sided view
of something, or
explicitly holds a
one-sided opinion
about something

7

Unconscious Bias

When someone’s
opinions or decisions
are distorted by
factors that they are
not even aware of. If,
however, a bias is
unconscious, it can be
extremely difficult even
to identify, let alone to
challenge,

8

What You See
Is All There Is:

from Daniel
Kahneman
the human tendency
to pay attention
only to what is
immediately obvious,
and to neglect the
hidden complexities
that exist in most
situations. Relying
too much on first
impressions, feelings
and the information
we happen to have
in front of us.

9

Survivorship bias:

The tendency only
to think about
successful examples
of something,
failing to consider
the bigger picture
in which the vast
majority of all cases
are failures

10

Confirmation Bias

We undervalue evidence
that contradicts our beliefs
And overvalue evidence
that confirms them.
The universal human
tendency to use new
information only
to confirm existing
beliefs, rather than
seeking to improve
and clarify your
understanding.

11

Dogmatism

The claim that certain
principles or ideas
are both absolutely
true and immune
to any form of
critical scrutiny or
discussion - whether
this dogmatism is
practiced by priests,
scientists or politicians.

12

Attention

The enemy of distraction

13

Distraction

The enemy of attention

14

Reasoning

Thinking about
things in
a sensible or
logical way, and
then presenting
this thinking
so as to permit
meaningful debate,
disagreement and
collaboration

15

Assertion

A statement of fact or
belief, often delivered
forcibly and provided without
support or justification.
It’s also something that,
on its own, does little
other than impart
information.

16

Argument

Persuasion through
reasoning in
support of a conclusion.
An attempt to persuade
someone through
reasoning that they
should agree with a
particular conclusion.
To attempt to provide
reasonable justification
for a particular conclusion

17

Two elements of an argument

Broken down into two
key elements:
•• You are presented with a line
of reasoning that…
•• …seeks to convince you to
accept a particular conclusion.

18

Conclusion

the final
point that someone
making an argument
is trying to convince
you of. It's the point that
everything else leads towards.
One argument’s conclusion
can be the starting point of
another; but each argument
only has one final conclusion.

19

Searching for a conclusion

When you’re trying
to work out whether
someone is making
an argument,
begin by seeing if
there is a particular
conclusion they want
to convince you of

20

Non-argument

Any
element of a piece of
writing that does not
attempt to persuade
you of a conclusion
through reasoning,
and thus doesn’t
qualify as part of an
argument

21

Description

Simply
reporting information
without any attempt
at evaluating,
commenting on or
using the information
to persuade.
its purpose
is to convey relevant
information as clearly and
neutrally as possible.

22

Summary

A brief
outline of key
information, often
setting out the main
points covered in a
longer piece of work.

23

Opinion

Presenting a
judgement without
providing reasoning.
Opinions tend to be
personal judgements
based on facts;

24

Advice and Warnings

Opinions about what
someone should, or
should not, do

25

Clarification

spelling out or
demonstrating a
particular concept
Spells out what is
meant by
a particular phrase,
idea or line of
thought

26

Illustration

Provides
a particular instance
or specific example
to show how the point
may apply in a particular
instance.

27

Explanation

Reasoning backwards
from something
assumed
to be true.
Suggests the reason
or reasons that
something came to
be the way it is.
Answers "Why?"

28

Rhetoric

The
attempt to persuade
by appealing to
emotions rather than
by using reasoning.
A general term for the
art of persuasive speaking
or writing, dating back to
the ancient Roman and
Greek world.

29

Six rhetorical techniques

Flattery
Appeal to novelty
Appeal to popularity
Appeal to sympathy
Appeal to fear
Jargon

30

Flattery

praising someone in
order to get them to
do what you want.