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Flashcards in Cuban Missile Crisis Deck (18):
1

Explain why the USSR became involved with Cuba. (6)

1. Because Cuba (Castro) was the only communist country in the Western Hemisphere so Khruhshev was keen to defend Cuba as it was ideal to try to spread communism in South America
2. He had plans to turn Cuba into a soviet missile base to test the will of the new president, Kennedy.
3. USA had warheads in Turkey and Western Europe in the range of the USSR so Khruhshev wanted to bargain with Kennedy and make agreements to remove them

2

Describe the Bay of Pigs invasion (4)

1. the exiles of Cuba that moved to America were trained by the CIA to attack Cuba and overthrow Castro. They were met at the bay of pigs by prepared Cuban troops
2. The Cuban troops were the successful, Kennedy was defeated
3. This caused humiliation for J F Kennedy but he claimed there was no direct involvement of the American government at the bay of pigs
4. There was no support from the local Cubans.

3

Describe the USAs response to Castro's seizure of power in Cuba (4)

1. In January 1961 the USA broke diplomatic relations
2. In April 1961 the U.S invaded at the bay of pigs
3. The U.S. banned all trade with Cuba
4. There was a frosty relationship without direct confrontation

4

The Cuban missile crisis was a victory for the Soviet Union. How far do you agree with this? (10)

1. Kruhshev could be seen as a responsible peacemaker, able to respond confidently and compromise.
2. They succeeded in keeping Cuba safe with no violence and Cuba was a valuable ally to the soviets as they were as far away from them as South America. Cuba remained communist afterwards also
3. It made the USA look unreasonable as they wanted the missiles in Cuba to be taken down but had some in Turkey as well
4. Turkey missiles were taken down- less threat
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5. However, they were forced to take the missiles down so this made Khrushchev look bad
6. Kennedy was seen more of a great leader out of the two because he got what he wanted
7. It was a significant part in khruhshev's resign in 1964
8. Kennedy's withdrawal of the missiles in Turkey was to be kept secret, making khruhshev look like the only loser
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Overall I partially agree with the statement but mainly do not agree because in the end Khruhshev was the one who had to take down his missiles. Khruhshev was replaced later which supports the fact that he was not liked in power at home and they lost confidence in him as a leader.

5

Explain why the bay of pigs invasion caused problems for the USA (6)

1. The U.S. And Kennedy were seen as weak as they did not carry out the proposition that they intended to do
2. It further strengthen Castro's position of power in Cuba
3. It resulted in Soviet nuclear weapons entering Cuba for attacking of USA which alarmed USA

6

Explain why Khruhshev placed missiles in Cuba (6)

1. He wanted to create more nuclear warheads as there was some USA warheads in Turkey and Western Europe in the range of USSR so Khruhshev felt threatened. He wanted to make equal warheads to USA
2. Soviet missiles in Cuba would strengthen khrushevs position in power as it was in the Western Hemisphere
3. Khruhshev was keen to defend Castro as he was the only communist leader in the Western Hemisphere and he had survived the bay of pigs invasion

7

Explain why the USA was concerned about events in Cuba between 1959 and 1961 (8)

1. The Cuban Revolution in 1959 meant that there was a new communist leader and USA wanted containment still. Castro also took over many U.S. Owned businesses and land in Cuba
2. Castro forged relations with Khruhshev which concerned USA as there was background fears and suspicions between USA and USSR and it meant that USSR could supply Cuba (who were close to USA) with economic aid and possibly nuclear weapons
3. People of USA feared a nuclear war attack and were given drills to prepare, the USSR being in relations with Cuba increased the risk as there had been a nuclear arms race between USA and USSR and Cuba was close to USA.

8

Explain why Kennedy could claim victory in the Cuban missile crisis (8)

1. He stood up to the USSR and hard line military advisors and they stepped down. he achieved what he wanted to do and was seen as a 'victor' in the crisis & Khruhshev could be seen as being humiliated
2. Kennedy chose to blockade which was a good decision as he was not violent and he explored many options to solve the crisis first. Overall, he avoided a war which is victory
3. During the decisions he convinced the soviets that he was prepared for war, showing great power from a leader.
4. Kennedy's ways of failure from the crisis included having to take down missiles in Turkey but this was agreed to not be publicly announced so people thought of him as the real winner.

9

Explain why Kennedy was successful in dealing with the Cuban missile crisis (8)

1. He stood his ground to the USSR and hard line military advisors and wasn't influenced by his advisors opinions on what to do. He was seen as a 'victor' in the crisis & Khruhshev could be seen as being humiliated
2. Kennedy chose to blockade and ignore a second letter from Khruhshev which was a good decision as he was not violent and he explored many options to solve the crisis first. Overall, he avoided a war and soviet ships turned around
3. During the decisions he convinced the soviets that he was prepared for war, showing great power from a leader.
4. Kennedy's ways of failure from the crisis included having to take down missiles in Turkey but this was agreed to not be publicly announced so people thought of him as the real winner.

10

Explain why the USA was so concerned about Soviet missiles in Cuba (6)

1. There had been a nuclear arms race between USA and USSR and now they had put some in Cuba, 'uncle sam's back yard', which meant that a nuclear attack could be imminent. American people feared this
2. It was a threat to world peace and Kennedy was challenged more directly
3. Khrushev wanted to defend Cuba as it was the only communist country in the Western Hemisphere. USA wanted to stop the spread of communism. USA feared there might be an increase of communism in South America

11

Explain Kennedy's options after missile sites were discovered in Cuba (6)

1. He could make an air strike or invade which could destroy missiles. This is good but it possibly could not destroy all of them and would be seen as aggressive, sparking an even more destructive reaction from USSR which could lead to war
2. He could also do nothing which is good because it would not spark a big response but it could be seen as a sign of weakness
3. He could create a blockade against Cuba which would be firm action but not violent and still gives them a chance to invade if it didn't work. However, this wouldn't remove the missiles and actions would be likely to be slow in producing results

12

Describe the USAs reaction to the Cuban Revolution (4)

1. In July 1960 the U.S. stopped buying Cuban sugar and later stopped trade with Cuba and diplomatic relations
2. The CIA planned to overthrow Castro because he was communist
3. They were concerned about their friendly relations with USSR and there was tension between USA and USSR
4. In April 1961 the bay of pigs took place

13

Describe how Cuba changed under Castro (4)

1. He replaced barista who was corrupt and Castro was popular
2. He took over American business and land in Cuba
3. He allied Cuba with the USSR
4. Castro sold his sugar to USSR instead of USA

14

Describe the relationship between USA and Cuba between 1959 and the bay of pigs of 1961 (4)

1. The relationship was good until the Cuban revolution in 1959 when Castro was the new leader
2. by 1960 they broke off diplomatic relations and trading stopped
3. Castro took over American businesses and land in Cuba
2. He forged alliances with USSR who USA had previous tensions with so the relationship deteriorated massively

15

The USA was more responsible for causing the Cuban missile crisis than the USSR. How far do you agree with this statement ?

1. Yes because at the bay of pigs, the USA showed that they were violent and that they had weapons, they went to attack first so they could be seen as the ones who started it all.
2. They decided to stop trading with Cuba after Castro came into power and if this didn't happen then Cuba may not have had to ally with USSR, which is when problems occurred
3. The Americans had spies over Cuba who were the ones who saw the nuclear missiles, which Cuba didn't have. It makes USA seem cunning and as if they were wanting a war
4. They had nuclear weapons in Turkey; if they didn't have them then Khruhshev may not have placed the missiles in Cuba.
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5. However, it was not USAs fault because they simply disagreed with the spread of communism which USA have always felt like, and Khruhshev was the one who was violent
6. Khruhshev was the one who is to blame as he is the one who put missiles down first (missile gap) and made the threats of violence
7. Khruhshev was also to blame as he was getting involved in starting a war and Cuba is not even in his sphere of influence
8. USA are not to blame as they did not win because they had to take down their missiles too and Cuba remained communist. Therefore they are not responsible
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Overall, I do not agree that USA was more responsible for the Cuban missile crisis than USSR very far at all. This is because it was Khruhshev who put the missiles down first. Some historians say that the Cuban missile crisis contributed to Khruhshev's later downfall as leader and this may be because people thought he was responsible and 'to blame'. Whereas Kennedy was carried on to be successful afterwards.

16

The outcomes of the Cuban missile crises were equally successful for the USA, the USSR and Cuba. How far do you agree with this statement? (10)

1. yes because they did all gain partial success. For example, Kennedy got his USSR to take down the missiles and Khruhshev got USA to get their missiles taken down. Cuba remained communist.
2. After the crisis, a hotline link was made between USA and USSR which improved USA-USSR relations, and they both equally took part in. It meant that it was indirectly helping Cuba also as they were under USSR (the superpowers) influence.
3. They all had equal success as no country had any war started in them and Kennedy was a peacemaker as he avoided a war despite having the chance and Khruhshev was a peacemaker as he took down his missiles down immediately
4.
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5. However no because Khruhshev had to take his missiles down and Kennedy had to as well but he made a deal to not announce that publicly, so Khruhshev looked more like he had been defeated than Kennedy, even though they did the same.
6. A telephone link was made between USA and USSR after the crisis to avoid further disputes but nothing was made for Cuba to help make relations between USA and Cuba better, so it was only equal for two countries.
7. Cuba took over USA businesses and continued to own them, which was unequal as America didn't do this
8.
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Overall, I think there was not equal success for Cuba USA and USSR because there was many ways in which they all succeeded and failed. I think USA failed the most as they were unable to contain communism (their foreign policy) and I do not agree with the statement very far at all.

17

Khruhshev handled the Cuban missile crisis very well. How far do you agree with this statement ?(10)

1. Yes because Khruhshev could be seen as a responsible international peacemaker, as it was even in his sphere of influence that he was making peace
2. Khruhshev succeeded in keeping Cuba safe with no violence and Cuba was a valuable ally to the soviets as they were as far away - Western Hemisphere. They remained communist after also
3. It made the USA look unreasonable as they wanted the missiles in Cuba to be taken down but had some in Turkey as well
4. He was clever and bargained with USA so that the Turkey missiles were taken down and USSR had less threat
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5. However, they were forced to take the missiles down so this made Khrushchev look bad publicly, as if defeated
6. Kennedy was seen more of a great leader out of the two because he got what he wanted and wasn't violent and Khruhshev was more violent as he put the missiles down in Cuba
7. Historians say the missile crisis took a significant part in khruhshev's resign in 1964 because he could be seen as to have failed or to be to blame
8. Kennedy's withdrawal of the missiles in Turkey was to be kept secret, making khruhshev look like the only defeated one
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Overall I partially agree with the statement but mainly do not agree because in the end Khruhshev was the one who had to take down his missiles. Khruhshev was replaced later which supports the fact that he was not liked in power at home and they lost confidence in him as a leader.

18

Kennedy handled the Cuban missile crisis better than Khruhshev did. How far do you agree with this statement? (10)

1. I agree because USSR were forced to take the missiles down so this made Khrushchev look bad and Kennedy had the main control by receiving the letters and he avoided a nuclear war
2. Kennedy was seen more of a great leader out of the two publicly as although he had to take down Turkish missiles, this was agreed to not be announced by Khruhshev
3. Historian say the missile crisis was a significant part in khruhshev's resign in 1964 possibly due to him feeling embarrassed /feeling to blame or people in the USSR felt he had failed the crisis so wanted a different leader. Whereas Kennedy carried on after to be successful
4. Kennedy stood up to hard line military advisors who may have influenced his decision that Kennedy might later regret. He was strong
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1. However, Khruhshev did get what he wanted - Turkish missiles to be taken down. He was the one who bargained cleverly and confidently
2. USSR remained allies with Cuba which made Khruhshev look powerful as he had relations with countries who were all the way in the Western Hemisphere. Kruhshev could be seen as a responsible international peacemaker.
3. Cuba also remained communist after the crisis which was against USAs foreign policy of containment, Kennedy was not sticking to his policy.
4. the USA look unreasonable as they wanted the missiles in Cuba to be taken down but had some in Turkey as well
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Overall I partially agree with the statement but I think it was more Khruhshevs failure that made kennedy look good, rather than him being a brilliant leader. this is because in the end Khruhshev was the one who had to take down his missiles. Khruhshev was replaced later which supports the fact that he was not liked in power at home and they lost confidence in him as a leader.