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Flashcards in Cultural Diversity Deck (28)
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1

What is a Culture?

 

The sum total of human ___r or ___l characteristics particular to a specific___ and passed from ___ to ____ or from one to another ___ the group.

Alternate definition:  The rules of ___ learned in order for a person to ___ ___y to life within a particular group.

 

What is culture

The sum total of human behavior or social characteristics particular to a specific group and passed from generation to generation or from one to another within the group.

Alternate definition:  The rules of behavior learned in order for a person to adapt successfully to life within a particular group.

 

2

What is a Culture?


§Culture influences all spheres of human life.
§
§Culture guides how people live, what they generally ___ and ___, how they ___, their ___,  ____ and ____
§
§Culture organizes our ___s, ___ and ___ in both ___ and ____ ways that may be beyond our awareness.
 


§Culture influences all spheres of human life.
§
§Culture guides how people live, what they generally believe and value, how they communicate, their habits, customs and tastes.
§
§Culture organizes our thoughts, emotions and behaviors in both obvious and subtle ways that may be beyond our awareness.
 

3

Culture is Shaped By

 

•Race
•Ethnicity
•Family
•Language
•Gender
•Socioeconomic Status
•Physical Ability
•Mental Ability
•Religion
•Lifestyle
•Traditions
•Customs

Upbringing

 Occupation

 Life Experiences

 Organizations

 Belief Systems

 Thought  processes

 Environment

 Media

 Values

 Expectations

 

4

Ethnocentrism


•Ethnocentrism – the ___ belief that one’s native country, culture, language, and modes of behavior are ____ to all others.
•People who are ethnocentric use their own culture as the standard of ____e against which people from other cultures are ___
 


•Ethnocentrism – the natural belief that one’s native country, culture, language, and modes of behavior are superior to all others.
•People who are ethnocentric use their own culture as the standard of excellence against which people from other cultures are judged. 
 

5


•Stereotyping – common but ____ behavior assuming that people ____ certain characteristics or traits because they are members of a particular group. 
•Stereotypical behavior can be ___
 


•Stereotyping – common but erroneous behavior assuming that people possess certain characteristics or traits because they are members of a particular group. 
•Stereotypical behavior can be unlearned.
Stereotypes can be positive or negative.

6

7

m                                                                                               Race vs. Ethnicity


•Race – one of ___ classifications of human beings based on ____ characteristics, such as skin color, stature, eye color, hair color and texture, facial characteristics and general body characteristics, all of which are ____•

•Ethnicity/Ethnic Group - Refers to people thought to have ___ ____ who share a distinctive ___.
•Derived from the Greek word ethnos, translated as ___



 


•Race – one of three classifications of human beings based on physical characteristics, such as skin color, stature, eye color, hair color and texture, facial characteristics and general body characteristics, all of which are hereditary. 

•Ethnicity/Ethnic Group - Refers to people thought to have common ancestry who share a distinctive culture.
•Derived from the Greek word ethnos, translated as nation.



 

8


•Ethnicity – the unique ___ and social ___ and ___ of groups that reflect distinct ___, ___ and ____ values.

•Ethnic groups share common factors such as language, dialect, nationality, music, folklore, religious beliefs, food preferences, geographical location, and a sense of uniqueness.

•Examples of ethnic groups: ____/____ or ___ ___
 


•Ethnicity – the unique cultural and social heritage and traditions of groups that reflect distinct customs, language and social values.

•Ethnic groups share common factors such as language, dialect, nationality, music, folklore, religious beliefs, food preferences, geographical location, and a sense of uniqueness.

•Examples of ethnic groups:  Hispanic/Latino or not hispanic
 

9

What is Cultural Diversity?


•The differences in ___, ____, ____, values systems, religion, and local cultures that make up various groups in a community and also account for the ___ in the community.•It is also called _____.


 


•The differences in race, language, ethnicity, values systems, religion, and local cultures that make up various groups in a community and also account for the diversity in the community.•It is also called multiculturalism.


 

10

Cultural Assimilation

A process by which members of an ___ ____ group ____ cultural characteristics that ___ them from the dominant cultural group or take on the cultural characteristics of ___ ___>

Minority groups are “____” into an established, ___ community.

A process by which members of an ethnic minority group lose cultural characteristics that distinguish them from the dominant cultural group or take on the cultural characteristics of another group.

Minority groups are “absorbed” into an established, larger community.

11

What is Cultural Diversity?
“Melting Pot” vs. “Salad Bowl”

 

•Melting Pot – ___ theory of cultural assimilation. 

•People from other countries come to the US and ___ into the mainstream ___ Anglo-Saxon ___ culture. 

•___ __  their own cultural identity in favor of the ____ culture of the society in which they found themselves. 

•Thought to result in a ____ culture with ___, ___ and ___ for all.

 


•Melting Pot – old theory of cultural assimilation. 

•People from other countries come to the US and assimilate into the mainstream white Anglo-Saxon Protestant culture. 

•Gave up their own cultural identity in favor of the predominant culture of the society in which they found themselves. 

•Thought to result in a blended culture with liberty, equality and justice for all.

 

12


•Salad Bowl – ____ theory of cultural assimilation.

•Recognizes cultural diversity as ___and unique components that remain ____  within society.

•Recognizes that culture influences the health s___,  ___ and ___ of individuals and that healthcare providers must be prepared to accommodate these differences. 


 


•Salad Bowl – current theory of cultural assimilation.

•Recognizes cultural diversity as separate and unique components that remain heterogeneous within society.

•Recognizes that culture influences the health status, beliefs and behaviors of individuals and that healthcare providers must be prepared to accommodate these differences. 


 

13

2 Types of Cultures 

 

____
____

14

1.  Individualist

.  Individualist: Take care of yourself

Goals, rights and needs of ___ person are considered important.

Individual has a right to __ ___ for himself/herself.

Individuals take risks ____ of the group.

Feel comfortable revealing their feelings _____________

More likely to hide emotions from ____

.  Individualist: Take care of yourself

Goals, rights and needs of each person are considered important.

Individual has a right to stand up for himself/herself.

Individuals take risks independent of the group.

Feel comfortable revealing their feelings only to people whom they know well.

More likely to hide emotions from outsiders.

15

2.  Collectivist


•Concerns of the group are ___ important than those of the individual.

•Group ___  is emphasized.

•___ among the members of the group is prized.

•Assertive behavior seems ___ and ___

•All risk is ___

•Discouragement of any negative emotions that might upset people ___ the group BUT frank about expressing negative emotion to ___
 


•Concerns of the group are more important than those of the individual.

•Group identity is emphasized.

•Harmony among the members of the group is prized.

•Assertive behavior seems rude and insensitive.

•All risk is shared.

•Discouragement of any negative emotions that might upset people in the group BUT frank about expressing negative emotion to outsiders.
 

16

Individualism vs. Collectivism

Individualism

Ø
ØValue is placed on ___ determination.
ØShows___e and works ___
Ø“I’ll make up my own mind.”
Ø“The ___-made   man/woman.”
Ø

Collectivism

ØIdentifies with and works well with ___
Ø___ in exchange for ___ and ___
ØEmphasis is on the group identity.

Individualism

Ø
ØValue is placed on self determination.
ØShows initiative and works independently.
Ø“I’ll make up my own mind.”
Ø“The self-made                             man/woman.”
Ø

Collectivism

ØIdentifies with and works well with groups.
ØProtection in exchange for loyalty and compliance.
ØEmphasis is on the group identity.

17

Language and Culture 

Cultural ways of ___ ____

low context and high context.

Cultural ways of using language:  low context and high context.

18

Low Context
•Use language primarily to ___thoughts, feelings and ideas as c____ and ____y as possible.

•Look for the meaning of a statement in the___ that were used to express it.

}“_________________.”
}
•Value being___ and ___l.  Gets ___ to the point.

•May be viewed as i___ and ___

•Grow impatient with “___ around the ___ .”

___ ____ use low context language.
 


•Use language primarily to express thoughts, feelings and ideas as clearly and logically as possible.

•Look for the meaning of a statement in the words that were used to express it.

}“Say what you mean and mean what you say.”
}
•Value being direct and literal.  Gets right to the point.

•May be viewed as insensitive and blunt.

•Grow impatient with “beating around the bush.”

•North Americans use low context language. (on exam)
 

19

High Context 
•Value language as a way to maintain ___ ___  Value harmony - speak in an ___ way (use ____  expressions) to avoid threatening another person’s “face” (to avoid giving offense).}The listener or the interpreter of the message is expected to “________________,” to accurately infer the implicit intent of the message.
}
•People learn to discover meaning from the context in which the message is delivered:  the ____ behavior of the speaker, the___ of the relationship, and the social rules that govern interaction between people.

•Example:  In Japan, rather than saying “No,” a person may say “___________.”  Rather than saying “Close the door,” a person may say “________y.”
•High context language is used in ___ and ___ ___
 


•Value language as a way to maintain social harmony. Value harmony - speak in an indirect way (use roundabout expressions) to avoid threatening another person’s “face” (to avoid giving offense).}The listener or the interpreter of the message is expected to “read between the lines,” to accurately infer the implicit intent of the message.
}
•People learn to discover meaning from the context in which the message is delivered:  the nonverbal behavior of the speaker, the history of the relationship, and the social rules that govern interaction between people.

•Example:  In Japan, rather than saying “No,” a person may say “Let me think about it for a while.”  Rather than saying “Close the door,” a person may say “It is somewhat cold today.”
•High context language is used in Asia and the Middle East.
 

20

Low Context vs. High Context


Ø___ context cultures are vulnerable to communication ____s when they assume more shared understanding than there really is.ØThis is especially true in an age of ____


ØInteractions between high and low context peoples can be problematic.
Ø
ØEastern culture can find Western culture to be offensivel____Western culture can find Eastern culture to be ___ and bafflingly unforthcoming with information.
Ø
ØFrench can feel that Germans___ their ____ by explaining the obvious, while Germans can feel that French managers provide __ ___


ØLow context cultures are vulnerable to communication breakdowns when they assume more shared understanding than there really is.ØThis is especially true in an age of diversity.

ØInteractions between high and low context peoples can be problematic.
Ø
ØEastern culture can find Western culture to be offensively blunt. Western culture can find Eastern culture to be secretive and bafflingly unforthcoming with information.
Ø
ØFrench can feel that Germans insult their intelligence by explaining the obvious, while Germans can feel that French managers provide
Ø        no direction.
 

21

Language and Culture 

Cultural ways of using language:  elaborate vs. succinct.

Cultural ways of using language:  elaborate vs. succinct.

22

Elaborate vs. Succinct

Elaborate

•Use language that is much more ___ and ____ than most people who speak English.

•Use strong ___ and___ s that don’t sound normal to English speakers.

•Can lead to misunderstandings between people from different backgrounds.

•Example:  Arabic.  If you just say “No” they will think you mean “Yes.”  To really say “No,” you have to say it several times and add “By God” or “I swear to God.”

Succinct

•Most extreme in cultures where___  is valued, such as __ ___

Elaborate

•Use language that is much more rich and expressive than most people who speak English.

•Use strong assertions and exaggerations that don’t sound normal to English speakers.

•Can lead to misunderstandings between people from different backgrounds.

•Example:  Arabic.  If you just say “No” they will think you mean “Yes.”  To really say “No,” you have to say it several times and add “By God” or “I swear to God.”

Succinct

•Most extreme in cultures where silence is valued, such as Native American.

23

Language and Culture 

Cultural ways of using language:  formal vs. informal.

Formal - not so much a matter of using __ ___  as of defining __ ___

•Example:  Korean - there are special vocabularies for different sexes, levels of social status and different social occasions.

___ and ____ 

Informal - ___ ___, even to strangers.

__ ,___, ___ (most informal), ___

Formal - not so much a matter of using correct grammar as of defining social position. 

•Example:  Korean - there are special vocabularies for different sexes, levels of social status and different social occasions.

•Asia and Africa

Informal - casual friendliness, even to strangers.

•U.S., Canada, Australia (most informal), Scandinavia

24

The culture in which a person is ____ influences the way he/she ___  to you as a health care provider.

The culture in which a person is raised influences the way he/she responds to you as a health care provider.

25

Culturally Competent Health Care


•The ability to provide care to patients with ___  values, beliefs and behaviors, including tailoring delivery to meet patients’ ___, ___ and ___ needs.

•To become culturally competent, the health care provider must be aware of the impact of social and cultural factors on health beliefs and behaviors.

•Increases ___  to care for all patient populations.

 


•The ability to provide care to patients with diverse values, beliefs and behaviors, including tailoring delivery to meet patients’ social, cultural and linguistic needs.

•To become culturally competent, the health care provider must be aware of the impact of social and cultural factors on health beliefs and behaviors.

•Increases access to care for all patient populations.

 

26

Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity

___
___/___ ___

___ ___ or ___ ___

___

____ ___ or ___ ___

 

Ethnicity: ___ or ___


•Minimum of five categories on race:

•White
•Black or African American
•American Indian or Alaskan Native
•Asian
•Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

•Ethnicity: Hispanic or Latino

 

27

How does NIH collect information on race/ethnicity


•___-defined and report the race and ethnicity the participant identifies with

•Participant reports are ____races as they find appropriate

•Researchers report to NIH “__ __ ___ race” category”

•Option for “___” “___ ”
 


•Self-defined and report the race and ethnicity the participant identifies with

•Participant reports are many races as they find appropriate

•Researchers report to NIH “more than one race” category”

•Option for “unknown” “other”
 

28

Ethnic Groups

•Derived from the Greek word ethnos, translated as nation.

•Refers to people thought to have common ancestry who share a distinctive culture.

 



•Derived from the Greek word ethnos, translated as nation.

•Refers to people thought to have common ancestry who share a distinctive culture.