When using a hand plane, what should be done to avoid cutting against the grain?
Either the workpiece or the tool should be reversed to cut with the grain.
Describe two examples of using a chisel that would require cutting across the grain.
A) cleaning the bottom of a dado cut.
B) cutting a hinge gain with a chisel
What is the first stage of creating the edge on a chisel or plane iron?
Use a bench grinder to make a suitable bevel.
What is Flat Grinding?
Flat grinding is done on a belt or flat grinder. This creates a bevel with a flat surface.
A wheel dresser is used to resurface the wheels on a grinder? Why is this an advantage when sharpening tools?
A sharp wheel cuts quickly, with very little heat, in comparison to a dull wheel.
What is a wheel dresser and how does it work?
It sharpens the wheel by breaking off the outer layer of abrasive grit.
What safety precaution is a must when working with a grinder?
When is it advisable to regrind a plane iron or chisel?
They should be regrind when the cutting edge has been nicked, dulled or when a significant amount of material must be removed.
What is normally the problem with the grinding wheels that come with new grinders?
They are often too hard or coarse. It is advisable to replace at least one of the wheels with a soft bond 80 or 120 grit aluminum oxide wheel.
What ratio of (length of bevel) to (thickness of steel) is required to achieve a bevel angle of 25 degrees to 30 degrees.
A 2 to 1 bevel length to steel thickness creates a bevel of 30 degrees. A bevel slightly longer than twice the thickness of the plane iron results in an angle of between 25 and 30 degrees.
What is the maximum distance that the tool rest can be away from the grindstone?
3 mm from the face of the stone.
List the two categories of whetstones.
A) oil stones and water stones
B) natural and man-made stones
What type of whetstones can be used to sharpen carbide cutters?
Diamond-impregnated stones are hard enough to sharpen carbide cutters.
What colour is a Soft Arkansas whetstone?
White, grey, black, pink or grey
How is the actual cutting edge on a scraper created?
Scrapper cutting edges are honed and then burnished with a tool called a burnisher. This procedure produces a burr on the edge of the tool, which is the actual cutting edge.
What are hand scrapers used for?
Hand scrapers are used for final smoothing before final sanding.
Sandpaper used by carpenters usually has what type of grit?
Garnet, aluminum oxide and silicon carbide.
What is the correct sequence of sanding?
Sand from a rough to a smooth finish and always progress from a coarse abrasive to a fine abrasive
What are the two classifications of sand paper?
Closed-coat and open-coat
What would be the result of grinding a cutting tool using the side of an abrasive wheel or the surface of a belt sander?
How is a water stone used for honing kept sharp?
Water flushing away particles
What type of whetstone can be used on hard material, including steel, carbide, ceramic or glass?
What’s the best method of ensuring that a grinding wheel remains true?
Use the entire wheel surface when grinding plane irons
Which abrasive grits are most commonly used for woodworking sanders?
Silicon carbide and aluminum oxide
What shape of tooth is found on a hand rip saw?
What type of tooth is found on a combination blade for a circular saw?
What shape of tooth is found on a hand crosscut saw?
What type of drill bit will you find a tapered tang for use in a bit brace?
Which inexpensive general purpose drill bit will drill fast but leaves rough-edged holes
Which router but will be best suited to cut plastic laminate flush with the edge of a surface?
Laminate flush trim bit
What is a countersink drill bit?
A bit that bores a hole to recess a flathead screw
What is the grind angle for plane irons and chisels?
25 - 30 degrees
Grinding wheels are most commonly made of _____ _______ or aluminum oxide.
Silicon carbide wheels are usually _____. And are used for sharpening carbide-tipped tools.
Aluminium oxide tools have two basic designations. What are they?
All purpose (grey) Heat sensitive or high speed (white)
White aluminum oxide wheels have a softer, more _____ structure and are ____ likely to hear and burn treated tools, such as chisels and plane irons.
New bench grinders should have one of the wheels replaced with a soft bond 180 or 120 grit aluminum oxide wheel. T or F
The tool rest when grinding plane irons or chisels should be no further back than _____.
In order to correct lost shape of grinder, you would use a _____.
Name two types
Star wheel dresser
Carborundum stick wheel dresser
Which made stones are commonly used for general carpentry?
Water stones can be natural or man made. T or F
The abrasives become blunted and ____ away of water stones.
You should use oil on water stone? Yes or no
Diamond impregnated stones can be used on any hard material. Y or N
Natural Arkansas whetstones are quarried from a small area around Hot Springs, Atlanta. T or F
F. Arkansas dumby
What is the order of Arkansas whetstones from most coarse to most fine.
Translucent ( dentistry)
Scrapers cutting edges are honed and burnished with a tool called a ______.
What does it mean if you observe dust instead of shavings while using a scraper?
The scraper is dull
How should one sharpen an auger bit?
File the spurs on the inside only, to avoid reducing the diameter of the bit. File only the top edge of the cutter.
The back of sandpaper may be ___ or _____.
What would you use to score a groove info the finish surface of laminate material so that it breaks or snaps along the groove?
Carbide tipped plastic laminate cutter
For sandpaper, abrasive particles, called _____ are held on the backing by a variety of adhesives.
Hide glue is intended for sandpaper for light to medium work. T or F
The abrasive bits or coatings normally used by carpenters are?
Garnet, aluminum oxide and silicon carbide.
Use grits ____ to _____ to prepare wood for paint finishes.
60 to 150
Use a grit coarseness of _____ to _____ to further smooth wood that will be finished with varnish.
150 to 220
What does density of the grit refer to when talking about sandpaper?
The density, how close together the particles are on the backing. There are two classifications: closed-coat and open-coat.
What is a closed coat sandpaper?
Closed-coat means that the grit particles completely cover the backing. Closed coat papers are used for fine finishing and tend to clog more easily because the wood particles get caught and fill the spaces between the grit.
What is open coat sandpaper?
Open coat grit particles cover 50 to 70 percent over the backing. Used more for initial sanding she bit is desirable to remove a lot of material.
Which clogs more? Open or closed coat sandpaper?
Closed coat clogs more because the wood particles get caught and fill the spaces between the grit.
Most dado kits come with four ____ choppers and one _____ chipper for a maximum width cut of _____.
Silicon carbide abrasive blades are for cutting?
Concrete and other types of rock materials such as marble, granite and tile products.
Aluminum oxide abrasive blades are used for cutting what?
Stainless steel, aluminum, bronze and brass
Diameters of abrasive blades range from ____ to _____
100 mm (4") 400 mm (6")
Rather than cut, diamond blades _____.